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Full text of "Georgia Department of Forestry Bulletin"

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Georgia State 
Forestry Department 

B. M. LUFBURROW, State Forester. 



Bulletin No. 1 



Forest Fire Control Policy 



I 



for 

Georgia 






By 
B. M. LUFBURROW 




Atlanta, Georgia — December, 1926 



FOREWORD 

The Georgia State Forestry Department is 
charged with the task of assisting the peo- 
ple of Georgia in protecting from fire twenty- 
two million acres of forest land. This De- 
partment was created in the summer of 1925 ; 
it was organized and the work was begun 
later in the same year. Since the organiza- 
tion of the Department there have been many 
inquiries by landowners and the general pub- 
lic, about the State's forest fire policy. This 
pamphlet is printed to supply the demand for 
this information. 



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RGIA'S FOREST FIRE CONTROL 
POLICY 

NEED FOR FOREST PROTECTION 




ia has some 22,000,000 acres of potential 
^* ind that is either growing trees or nothing. 
& steep, too stony, too poor, or too far from 

;o be used for plow land at the present time; 
q le the demand for food and clothes by an 

\g population may in time require that some 
O and be put under plow, it is not likely that 
U ill be a great reduction of the forest area 
years to come. In the meantime the de- 
£J r forest products, such as lumber, pulpwood, 
uj ne and rosin is so great that the growing of 
C\ s the most profitable use that can be made 
Z land. This forest area, if protected from 
co put under forest management is capable of 

ling an industry that should contribute at 
£ '5,000,000.00 annually to the wealth of 
J5 Such an industry deserves protection and 

;ement both from the State and the indi- 
Some 90% of these 22,000,000 acres will 

aturally if forest fires are keot out. The 

g 10%, consisting of old fields, badly burned 
and clear cut areas which have no seed 

* to repeated fires, must be restocked arti- 
er Again, the rate of growth on the protected 

here the litter and humus has accumulated 

.e absence of fires, will be more than double 

the area where annual fires occur. 



IEST FIRE PROTECTION MUST BE 
COOPERATIVE 



Q 

Z 

o 

CQ 



ild be impossible for the man in the city 
ct his home, but for cooperative effort, 
idividual throughout the city detects and 
ires to the Fire Department; and this com- 
of individual and collective effort gives him 
n. The individual who wants to protect his 
id has greater obstacles to overcome, for 
bor may not see the necessity of protecting 
t land and may be careless with fire. The 
^1 has no authority to enforce the laws, or 

aid in preventing or suppressing fires and 

the cost of protection on small areas is relatively 
higher because it requires nearly as many fire tools, 
equipment, improvements, and patrol as a number 
of small areas combined would require. 

Adequate forest fire protection, for Georgia's 
22,000,000 acres, thru cooperative effort will cost 
approximately $450,000.00 or 2M cents per acre per 



- 4 - 

■ 

annum. This estimate is less than seven-tenths of 
one percent of the annual income from Georgia's 
forest lands and is based on organized effort. Indi- 
vidual effort would cost three times as much. All 
efforts must be coordinated, if the forests of the 
State are to be protected at a minimum cost. 

STATE AID. 

Organized efforts of groups of land owners in 
various parts of the State have been incomplete. . 
The most desirable results are accomplished thru 
state-wide efforts and cooperation with the State. 
In this way the organization can receive not only 
financial aid but the expert advice and assistance of 
state forest officers trained in this work. 

TIMBER PROTECTIVE ORGANIZATIONS 




The organized effort of a group of timberland 
owners in close cooperation with the State offers 
the most economical and practical method of fire 
piotection for the cost can be reduced to a mini- 
mum. The technical work and necessary super- 
vision can be done by State officers without cost to 
the organization, which will allow all funds of the 
organization to be spent in actual prevention and 
suppression work. This policy will be applied to 
all forest protection work in Georgia as fast as 
funds become available for the work. 

HOW OWNERS CAN ORGANIZE 

Financial assistance can be had only thru a co- 
operative agreement between duly elected officers 
of the organization and the Georgia Forestry De- 
partment. Individual agreements must be signed 
by each owner and his pro-rata share paid to the 
Treasurer of the Organization before he becomes 
a member and is eligible to receive the benefits of 
the organization. The total acreage of the Organi 
zation must amount to 10,000 acres or more before 
the cooperative agreement will be accepted by the 
State. The larger and more compact the area, the 
less the cost of protection and for this reason every 
effort should be made to include every owner in each 
organization area. 

No state or federal aid will be advanced to an 
organization, but vouchers showing the actual 
amount disbursed by the organization are forwarded 
to the State Forestry Department quarterly and the 



refund is made to the organization on the basis 
called for in the cooperative agreement. The total 
refund will not exceed fifty percent of the organi- 
zation expenditures. 

FINANCING THE ORGANIZATION 

1. On or before July 1st of each year the mem- 
bers of the organization pay to the Secretary and 
Treasurer of the Organization a sum equal to the 
rate per acre agreed upon by the Organization for 
each acre listed with the Organization, and this 
payment represents the members share of the cost 
for the following twelve months period. 

2. The State will refund 25 to 50 per cent of the 
total spent by the organization. 

3. The combined fund must be used for forest 
fire protection on the Timber Protective Organiza- 
tion area. 

4. The salary or expenses of a State or Federal 
officer is not charged against these funds. 

5. On June 30th of each year the Timber Pro- 
tective Organization must make a financial state- 
ment both to the State and to its members showing 
how the funds have been expended. 

6. A voucher requesting state refund must be 
submitted at least quarterly, and monthly if de- 
sirable. 

7. Unexpended balances which may be on hand 
on June 30th of each year will be allowed to accu- 
mulate as an emergency reserve fund until the fund 
reaches a total of $500.00. This reserve fund must 
be used only when necessary to meet emergencies 
caused by unusual fire seasons. 

8. Should the unexpended balance from the pre- 
vious year exceed $500.00 the amount of this excess 
will be used to reduce the assessment for the fol- 
lowing year. 

PERSONNEL 

1. The State Forester and his assistant, offi- 
cially designated the Chief of Protection, formulate 
plans for forest fire control in the State. All mat- 
ters of policy must be approved by these officials. 

2. The Chief of Protection is responsible for the 
execution of the forest fire control policy of the 
state and all Timber Protective Organizations are 
under his jurisdiction. 

3. The officers of each Timber Protective Or- 
ganization must consist of a President, Vice-Presi- 
dent, and a Secretary-Treasurer, who have lands 
listed in the Organization and who must be elected 
by the members. The officers serve without com- 
pensation. Their duties are to represent the Or- 
ganization in working out plans for protection of 
the lands listed with the Organization. 

4. Each organization is in charge of a Chief Pa- 
trolman, who is preferably a local man, so qualified 
for his duties as to be acceptable to the Chief of 
Protection and the officers of the organization and 
he is responsible to these officials for the proper 
functioning of the protection work of the organi- 
zation. 



5. Any Timber Protective Organization embrac- 
ing 40,000 acres or more, may be divided into dis- 
tricts and each district be in charge of a Patrol- 
man or (Deputy Forest Warden) who is respon- 
sible to the Chief Patrolman for all work in his 
district, such as educational work, fire detection and 
suppression, construction of towers, telephone lines, 
fire lines, roads and trails, etc., and any other work 
necessary for the protection of his district. 

6. The Governor on recommendation of the State 
Forestry Department commissions all patrolmen as 
Deputy Forest Wardens. When the commission and 
badge are received, the Deputy Forest Warden will 
have authority to make arrests for violation of the 
Fire Law. 

7. Per diem wardens, local residents who assist 
the patrolmen in detecting and suppressing fires in 
the immediate vicinity, may also receive Deputy 
Forest Warden commissions upon recommendation 
of the patrolmen and the approval of the Organi- 
zation. 

8. Where the acreage covered by the Timber 
Protective Organization is 100,000 acres or more, 
the State Forestry Department recommends the 
construction of lookout towers for detection pur- 
poses. These towers should be manned during pe- 
riods of fire danger and connected with all parts 
of the organization area by telephone. 

The detection of a forest fire at the earliest pos- 
sible moment and being able to have the crew start 
work without delay are two vital factors in forest 
protection work. 

The efficiency of the personnel and the success 
of the organization will depend largely on the 
amount of thought and study given to the activi- 
ties undertaken. Therefore a carefully devised plan 
of work drawn up by the Chief of Protection, of- 
cers of the Organization and the Chief Patrolman 
fhould be worked out. This should cover: 
Fire Atlas: 

.1, A map showing, 

(a) Area covered by organization. 

(b) Location of Districts. 

(c) Location of Patrolmen, Deputy Ward- 

ens and Keymen. 

(d) Location of towers, lookout points, 

telephone lines and stations, roads, 
streams and all natural barriers. 

2. A map showing the location of each fire. This 
should cover a period of ten years. It is most valu- 
able in analyzing the fire risk and enables the Chief 
Patrolman to concentrate on the section where the 
danger is the greatest. 

3. A budget covering amounts to be spent for: 

(a) Fire Prevention. 

(b) Improvements (permanent and tem- 

porary) . 

(c) Equipment. 

(d) Fire suppression. 

Execution of this plan, after its approval, is as 
follows : 

1. Chief Patrolman is responsible, assisted by 
Chief of Protection. 






2. Patrolmen, Deputy Forest Wardens, and Key- 
men are to be recommended by Chief Patrolman 
and when employed, given definite instructions as 
to their duties. Chief Patrolman will, 

(a) Aid patrolmen in selecting key men, 

law enforcement and educational 
work. 

(b) Specify amount of time to be spent 

on each activity and inspect their 
work. 

(c) Distribute supplies, equipment and 

fire signs. 

(d) Approve all reports and supervise 

the location and construction of all 

improvements. 
Realizing that the prevention of forest fires, over 
90% of which are man-caused and due to thought- 
lessness and lack of knowledge, the major portion of 
the patrolman's work will be educational in char- 
acter. This work consists of establishing personal 
contacts with all agencies within his district, with 
sawmills, logging camps, visiting schools, posting 
fire notices and giving specific information to all 
psople which will show the necessity of preventing 
fires and the relation between the forests and the 
prosperity of the community. He will also be re- 
sponsible for the detection and suppression of all 
forest fi>es in his district, as well as the organiza- 
tion of fire fighting crews, and he will take direct 
charge of fires which may occur in the district; he 
will be responsible for the enforcement of the fire 
law; he will recommend to the Chief Patrolman, 
Deputy Forest Wardens in his district to assist him 
in the prevention and suppression work. The look- 
outs, where towers are constructed, will be respon- 
sible for the detection and reporting of all fires to 
the party responsible for suppression work and he 
Will occupy his post during the period of fire dan- 
ger. He should not be called upon for suppression 
work except in cases of emergency. He may, how- 
ever, be used for improvement work (if employed 
by the month) during such periods when there is 
no fire risk. 

HOW THE ORGANIZATION OPERATES 

1. The area of the Timber Protective Organiza- 
tion is determined by the lands listed. 

2. The officers are elected by the members who 
have listed their lands and paid their dues. 

3. A Chief Patrolman is employed. 

4. The money is budgeted and plans decided 
upon. The organization acreage of the Timber Pro- 
tective Organization is divided into districts and 
patrolmen employed, given instructions and assigned 
to the district. 

5. The patrolman selects the Deputy Wardens 
who are to assist him in his work. 

6. The Chief Patrolman starts to work locating 
the sites for permanent improvements and when 
approved construction work is begun under his di- 
rection. 

7. The Patrolman collects evidence for prose- 
cution of fire trespass cases. Chief Patrolman and 
a State officer will assist him in working up and 
prosecuting the case. 



No surplus funds at the end of the year may be 
used for permanent improvements and equipment 
but are held as emergency funds. 

IMPROVEMENTS 

Lookout towers are most effective in the detec- 
tion of forest fires. The points to be considered 
in the location of these towers are: 

1. Height of ground or elevation. 

2. Telephone connections and other communica- 
tion facilities. 

3. Area to be covered. 

4. Accessibility. 

Each tower should be equipped with a field glass, 
map, allidade and compass for detecting and lo- 
cating fires. They should be connected with tele- 
phone lines to all parts of the area under protec- 
tion and especially to the points where the fire 
fighters are located. They should be manned dur- 
ing periods of fire danger. 

TELEPHONE CONNECTIONS 

Telephone lines should be constructed with the 
idea of tying in the personnel of the organization 
in all parts of the areas with the lookout points 
so that fires may be reported and extinguished as 
soon as detected. The plans for the organization 
should include the construction of these lines as fast 
as funds will permit. Through cooperation with the 
local residents, it is possible for the organization to 
furnish the material and the local residents to fur- 
nish the labor for construction on a cooperative basis. 
The location of lines and the distribution of tele- 
phones will be determined by the Chief Patrolman 
with the approval of the Chief of Protection. 

AGREEMENTS 

The organization must have an agreement with 
all employees, both temporary and permanent, as to 
salaries and wages. The permanent employee is 
paid on the yearly basis and a temporary employee 
may be paid on the monthly, weekly or hourly basis, 
the amount depending upon the prevailing local 
rates. 

It is necessary to agree upon the traveling ex- 
penses incurred by the personnel. The Chief Pa- 
trolman may be reimbursed for expense while away 
from home on organization business. The patrol- 
men will not be allowed traveling expenses except 
when authorized by the Chief Patrolman and on the 
approval of the Chief of Protection. 

Before an organization can function under the 
law the following agreement must be signed by an 
officer of the Organization and the State Forester. 

AGREEMENT 

between 4 

THE GEORGIA STATE FORESTRY 
DEPARTMENT 
and 



The _ _ — — 

WHEREAS, the Clarke-McNary Reforestation 
Act (43 Stat. 653) provides, among other things, 
that the U. S. Forest Service may cooperate with 
the various states in forest fire protection; and 



WHEREAS, the U. S. Forest Service has deter- 
lined that certain expenditures for forest fire pro- 
gction properly made by private land owners may 
e included as a part of the basis for reimburse- 
lent to the State; and 

WHEREAS, under sections 3 and 6 of the Geor- 
gia Forestry Law of 1925, the State Forestry De- 
>artment is authorized to cooperate with private 
and owners in forest culture and preservation; 

THEREFORE, it is agreed, 

That, effective _ 19 , 

he said- _ , 

will provide the forest fire protective system de- 
scribed below, organized in cooperation with the 
State Forestry Department, to cover its lands in 



as shown on the attached map which is made a 
part of this agreement. 

LANDS TO BE PROTECTED: 

Area „„ 

Location _ _ 

Forest Conditions „ 



Virgin, Culled, Cutover, Second Growth. 

PROTECTIVE ORGANIZATION: 

Administration 

Character, Cost per annum. 

Fire Wardens and Patrolmen 



Duties, Number, Cost per annum. 

IMPROVEMENTS, CONSTRUCTION AND 
MAINTENANCE: 

Fire Lines, Telephone Lines, Towers _.. 



Kind, Number of miles, Cost per mile. 
All Other Expenditures _ 



Kind and Cost per annum. 
Total Cost per Acre per Annum 



2. That, the said 

authorizes the appointment, by the Governor, of its 
principal forest protective employees as Deputy 
Forest Wardens; keep a record of expenditures in- 
curred in connection with such protective system 
showing for each expenditure, the voucher, date of 
payment, name and address of payee, purpose or 
object to which applied, and the amount. 

3. That, the State Forester may exercise direct 
supervision of these protective measures; that, the 
Chief of Protection or authorized officials may at 
any time inspect the area, and the State Forester 
and Federal Inspection officer, under the Clarke- 
McNary Law, may have access at all reasonable 
hours to the books and voucher files to check ex- 
penditures under this agreement; and 



—10— 



ffcf'Qf 1 ^ in * h i event of credit bein S S^med to 
the btate by reimbursement thereto of any part of 

the fire protective expenditures made by the 



the State Forestry Department will, upon receipt 
Dy the fetate Forester of proper vouchers covering 
such expenditures, refund, an amount not to ex- 
ceed 50 per cent of said expenditures to the said 

kJSf £ sr ?? ment becomes binding onlheday "it is' 
signed by the contracting parties and shall con- 
"1 T, ^ ther ? aft ??> subject, however, to the 
funds available under the Acts of 1925 for carry- 
ing out this work, and, V 

It is expressly understood that this agreement, 
or any modication thereof cannot be terminated by 
either party without sixty (60) days notice, in 
writing, to the other. 

. IN WITNESS WHEREOF, the parties hereto 
have caused this AGREEMENT to be executed, this 

day of . : _.19_. : 

GEORGIA STATE BOARD OF FORESTRY, 

By 1 

Title 



By ~ 
Title 



REPORT SYSTEM 

1. The Deputy Forest Wardens' report should 
be verbal and made to the District Patrolman. 

2. The District Patrolman reports consist of: 

(a) A diary submitted monthly, showing 

work done and expenses incurred. 

(b) Individual fire reports. 

(c) The individual law enforcement re- 

ports. 

«. M Xj e ?°^ ts ° f the Patrolmen are forwarded to 
the Chief Patrolman, who will approve and forward 
to the officers of the Organization and the Chief of 
Protection at the State Forester's office. 

All expenditures must be approved by the Secre- 
tary and Treasurer of the Timber Protective Or- 
ganization and the Chief of Protection, before a 
refund can be had from the State. 

COUNTY SYSTEM 

It is realized that all forest land in this State 
that is m need of protection cannot receive the in- 
tensive protection contemplated in the above organi- 
zation, because the land is scattered over a consid- 
erable area and the telephone, lookout and patrol 
system would be too expensive. For forest regions 
of this kind the fire control work can be organized 
in one of two ways: 

1. Grouping the timberland owners in the Tim- 
ber Protective Organizations with the lands 
less frequently patrolled and the improve- 
ments and equipment covering larger areas. 



—11— 

2. There is a total of 96 County Police em- 
ployed in 58 Counties in Georgia. Under 
Section VIII of the Georgia Forestry Law 
these men can be appointed County or Dep- 
uty Forest Wardens and head up the 
forest fire control work over the County. 

The County Commissioners and the Chief of Pro- 
tection plan the work which the County Wardens 
are to do. 

The County is divided into districts. The County 
Warden recommends to the County Commissioners 
the appointment of Deputy Forest Wardens in each 
militia district and these Deputies are selected be- 
cause of interest in the forestry work, influence in 
the community, personality and leadership. They 
serve without compensation. 

The County Wardens duties are primarily edu- 
cational in character. They consist of law enforce- 
ment work, informing the public of forestry laws, 
posting fire signs, visiting schools, saw mills, log- 
ging camps, etc., pointing out the necessity of being 
careful with fire in the woods and the influence of 
the forests upon the health and prosperity of the 
community. 

The County Warden is responsible for the detec- 
tion and suppression of forest fires within the 
County. 

The Deputy Wardens are responsible to the 
County Warden and their activities are confined to 
the militia districts. They are responsible for the 
detection and suppression of fires within their dis- 
tricts and report to the County Forest Warden. 

The County Forest Warden shall report the in- 
dividual forest fires showing the cause of the fire, 
number of fire fighters employed, the acreage 
burned and an estimate of the damage. 

The County and Deputy Forest Wardens re- 
ceive a commission from the Governor and a badge 
from the State which gives them the authority to 
make arrests for violation of the fire law. 

It will be the duty of the County Forest Warden 
to collect evidence and handle all cases which are 
prosecuted under the fire law. The Chief of Pro- 
tection will assist in the prosecution, if so re- 
quested by the County Warden. 

A limited amount of fire signs, posters, bulletins 
and leaflets, etc., will be furnished by the State For- 
estry Department to each Forest Warden. The 
Chief of Protection will also assist the County 
Warden in organizing the County and will talk 
at any meetings arranged by the County Forest 
Wardens and will assist in the work with the pri- 
vate timberland owners and in other work that will 
help protect the forests of the County. 



BULLETIN 



NO. 2 



State of Georgia 
State Board of Forestry 



FOREST THINNING 



By 



ALFRED AKERMAN 



Atlanta, Georgia 






March, 1928 


























■ 



STATE BOARD OF FORESTRY 

Lamartine Griffin Hardman, Governor. 

George H. Carswell, Secretary of State. 

Samuel Washington McCallie, State Geologist. 

James Philander Campbell, Director of Extension, State Col- 
lege of Agriculture. 

Alexander K. Sessoms, Representing Naval Stores Interest. 

Mrs. M. E. Judd, Representing Woman's Civic Organizations. 

Charles B. Harman, Representing Lumber Manufacturing 
Interest. 

J. Leonard Rountree, Representing Farming Interest. 

Bonnell Harold Stone, Representing Timber Land Owning 
Interest. 

TECHNICAL STAFF 

Burley Matthew Lufburrow, B. S. F., State Forester. 

Alfred Akerman, B. A., M. F., Assistant State Forester in 
Charge of Forest Management and Research. 

Bonnell Harold Stone, Assistant State Forester, without pay, 
in Charge of Education and Publicity. 

Frederic B. Merrill, B. S. M. F., Assistant State Forester in 
Charge of South Georgia District. 

Everett Bascom Stone, Jr., M. F., Assistant State Forester, in 
Charge of North Georgia District. 

Charles Wayne Nuite, B. S. F., Field Assistant, South Georgia 
District. 

Eitel Bauer, B. S. F., Field Assistant, Management and Re- 
search. 



FOREST THINNING 



Importance of Thinning in Georgia 

There are about 23,000,000 acres of forest land in 
Georgia. About 90% of this area renews itself by 
sprouts and natural seeding, provided the natural 
renewal is not interfered with by fires during the 
renewal period. On about 10% of the land the nat- 
ural reproduction needs to be supplemented by 
planting or artificial seeding to get a full stand. Ac- 
cident plays a part in natural reproduction, 
and the resulting stand may be too dense or it may 
be a mixture in which worthless kinds of tree occur 
along with valuable kinds. To make the most of the 
bountiful reproduction which nature provides, the 
crowding in dense stands must be relieved and the 
percentage of worthless trees in mixture must be re- 
duced. Moreover, where valuable kinds come in nat- 
urally and with the right spacing or where they are 
introduced by artificial means, there must be some 
removal from time to time as the stand grows, or 
crowded conditions will develop, although there was 
no crowding at the start. It follows, therefore, that 
to correct the accidents of natural reproduction 
and to keep the natural and the planted stands in 
thrifty condition, well nigh every acre of the 23,000,- 
000 must be thinned one or more times while the 
timber crop is growing, if those 23,000,000 acres are 
to produce the large crops of timber that our in- 
creasing population and our expanding industries 
will demand of them. Next after protection from 
fire, the Georgia forests stand in need of systematic, 
intelligent thinning. 












II 

Principle on Which Thinning Works 

Thinning is the removal of some of the trees from 
a stand while it is growing for the benefit of the 
trees that are left. Suppose that a young stand 
starts off with the trees about 6 feet apart each way, 
or 1210 to the acre. When the stand is about 10 
years old, or sooner in the case of some of the fast- 
growing kinds of tree, the limbs begin to touch and 
the lower limbs begin to die. 

Some of the trees in the stand grow up faster than 
the others, and in a few years their tops will be 
above the general level of the stand, some will have 
their tops at the general level, some will be over- 
topped, and some will be dead. By the time the 
stand is 50 years old there may be left only 500, or 
less than 500, of the original 1210 trees; the others 
have been crowded out by their stronger neighbors. 
If, as often happens in natural seeding, there are 
several thousand trees on an acre at the start, the 
crowding will be greater and the effects of it will be 
more marked. 

Moderate crowding does the stand good. It 
makes the trees grow tall and shed their side limbs. 
Long, clean trunks that saw out clear lumber are 
the result of crowding. But the competition in a 
dense stand may become too strong; and when it 
does, it may react in a harmful way on the trees that 
live and form the final crop, slowing down their rate 
of growth and lessening the volume of the final 
crop. By removing some of the trees from time to 
time as they increase in size the beneficial influences 
of the competition can be continued and the harm- 
ful effects can be prevented. 

Since thinning is based on the principle that a 
stand can be kept thrifty by cutting out some of 
the trees, methods of thinning, how soon to thin, 



how often to thin, and what trees to cut out will 
depend to some extent on the classes into which the 
trees become separated by competition, and these 
classes must be denned for a clear understanding 
of the discussions that follow. (1) Dominant trees 
have crowns above the general level of the crown 
cover, getting full light from above and some light 
from the side. (2) Co-dominant trees have crowns 
at the general level of the crown cover, getting 
full light from above but little light from the side. 
(3) Intermediate trees have crowns below the gen- 
eral level of the crown cover, getting some light 
from above but none from the side. (4) Overtop- 
ped trees get no direct light from above or from 
the side. 




Diagram showing height classes in crowded stand; (i) domi- 
nant, (2) co-dominant, (3) intermediate, (4) overtopped. 



Ill 

Methods of Thinning 

Several methods of thinning have been used, but 
the method most used is to start with the overtopped 
class and to proceed upward into the intermediate 
and co-dominant classes until enough trees have 



been cut out to relieve the crowding. This method 
is the one recommended to be used in ordinary con- 
ditions, but it may be modified to meet extraordi- 
nary conditions. The overtopped trees may be too 
small to pay to cut, and the thinning may begin with 
the intermediate class. Some of the dominant trees 
may be very crooked or very limby, and they may 
be cut out and the co-dominant and intermediate 
trees surrounding them may be left undisturbed un- 
til the next thinning. 

IV 

How Early and How Often to Thin 

The age at which it may be practicable to thin a 
young stand depends on the market for small ma- 
terial. Where there is a market for small material 
a young stand may be thinned earlier and the thin- 
ning may be repeated at shorter intervals than where 
there is a market for only large material. Ordinarily 
the safe rule to follow is to thin a young stand When 
the material to be removed has reached such a size 
that its sale will pay for its removal and not to thin it 
again until there is enough material to be removed to 
yield a profit, or at least to pay for its removal. Thin- 
nings in an old field pine stand in Georgia seven 
miles from a market for cordwood have shown that 
such stands may be thinned when nearing 20 years 
of age and that the thinning may be repeated at in- 
tervals of seven years. Stands closer to market 
might be thinned a little earlier, in some cases as 
early as 15 years ; and the thinning might be repeat- 
ed at intervals of 5 years. With stands farther than 
seven miles from market it might be necessary to put 
off thinning until the 25th year or longer, and the 
interval might be lengthened to 10 years. If the 
stand is composed of slow-growing hardwoods in- 



stead of pine, the first thinning would have to come 
later and the interval between thinnings would have 
to be longer than for pine. 

Stands on small farm holdings may be thinned 
earlier and more often than on large timberland 
holdings. There is a demand for firewood, posts, 
and barn poles on the farm, and these requirements 
may be met in whole or in part by thinning. Nearly 
all of the firewood, posts and barn poles used in 
Georgia could be cut in such a way as to improve the 
stands and to increase their output of saw-timber. 



How Much to Take Out in Thinning 

If a thinning starts with the overtopped trees it 
must be carried into the intermediates to have much 
effect on the dominants and co-dominants from 
which the final crop of timber is to come; but it 
should in ordinary circumstances not go much be- 
yond the intermediates. The crown cover must be 
broken to relieve the crowding, but the stand should 
not be opened up too much. If it is opened up too 
much, the soil becomes exposed to the action of 
wind and sun, undesirable growth may come in, or 
the remaining trees may form large side limbs. The 
guiding thought in making a thinning is to break the 
cover slightly, to break it evenly, and to leave the 
remaining trees evenly spread over the ground at 
such distances that their crowns will close again in 
two or three years. 

Expressed in terms of the number of trees stand- 
ing at the time the thinning is made, in the case of 
young pine stands a thinning that begins with over- 
topped and includes most of the intermediate trees 
might take so many as 25% of the trees. Expressed 



in terms of volume such a thinning might take so 
much as 15%. 

In general it is safer to thin moderately than to 
thin heavily. In ordinary circumstances, to be on 
the safe side, the thinning should stop among the 
intermediates and not go beyond 25% of the number 
of trees or 15% of the volume. In exceptional circum- 
stances the thinning might go into the dominants. A 
good example of this are stands of old field pine that 
have seeded in irregularly and have some very 
limby dominants. Some of the limby dominants may 
be taken at the first thinning, if there are cleaner 
stemmed co-dominants standing close enough to close 
up the holes in the crown cover made by the removal 
of the limby dominants. 



VI 



Thinning Mixed Stands 

Stands are often composed of several kinds of 
tree. In mixed stands a choice may be made among 
the kinds as well as among the individuals and 
classes of the same kind, when stands are thinned. 
The desirability of a kind depends on its value for 
lumber, turpentine, posts, and ties, and its suitabil- 
ity to the soil. The order of preference would vary, 
but a general order for the Mountains and the Pied- 
mont Plateau may be stated as follows: (1) Black 
walnut, (2) yellow poplar, (3) white pine, (4) lob- 
lolly pine, (5) shortleaf pine, (6) ash, (7) hickory, 
(8) white oak, (9) post oak, (10) red oak, and so on 
down to such trees as blackjack oak and black gum. 
A similar list for South Georgia would begin with 
slash pine, followed by longleaf pine. 

In making a thinning in a mixed stand an effort 
should be made to choose between kinds so as to 



weed out the less desirable kinds. When a single 
thinning may take 25% of the trees, it is readily seen 
that in the course of several thinnings the balance 
can be thrown toward the more desirable kinds and 
that in some cases all of the worthless or less de- 
sirable kinds can be cut out, leaving a pure stand 
of the kind most desired. 

VII 
The Advantages of Thinning 

The advantages of thinning may be summed up as 
follows : 

1. Firewood, fence posts, and barn poles can be 
had without drawing on the final crop of timber. 

2. Where the market conditions are good, thin- 
nings yield a margin of profit over the cost of mak- 
ing them and help the owner carry the timber crop 
while it is growing. 

3. By keeping the trees that are to be in the final 
stand in a thrifty condition, thinnings bring them to 
merchantable size sooner than when the stand is 
not thinned. The time it takes to grow a crop may 
be shortened 10% or more. 

4. By favoring the clean-stemmed, straight trees 
of the better kinds, thinnings improve the quality 
of the final crop and put the owner in a Way to get 
a higher price for his timber. 

VIII 

Thinnings Should be Carefully Made 

Since the wrong kind of thinning may do more 
harm than good, it follows that the choice of the 
trees to remain and those to come out should be 
carefully made. It is not safe to leave the choice 
to the ordinary hand. The owner should mark the 
trees before the cutting, or have them marked by one 

9 



of the hands who has sounder judgment than the 
rest. In marking the trees to come out such points 
as relative position of crown, knotty stems, crook- 
ed stems, signs of rot, the relative value of the kinds 
of tree in mixture, and the even distribution of the 
remaining trees should be kept in mind. 

Some care should be had for the tops left on the 
ground after thinning. They should be lopped and 
the limbs scattered, or at least they should be drag- 
ged away from the trunks of the trees left standing. 

Thinnings in pine stands should be made only dur- 
ing the frost months. If made at other seasons, they 
are liable to start an attack by bark beetles. 

Owners of timberlands may apply to the State 
Board of Forestry for an examination of and report 
on their lands. Such reports treat of the condition 
of the timber and ways of improving it. If thinnings 
are advisable, the trees on sample areas may be 
marked to show the kinds of thinning the owner is 
advised to make. The only cost to the owner for 
such work is the travelling and living expense of 
the agent of the Board while doing the work. 



10 



PUBLICATIONS OF THE DEPARTMENT 
OF FORESTRY 

Leaflet 1. The Loblolly Pine. 

Leaflet 2. Forest Fire Prevention. 

Leaflet 3. Report of Forest Fire Line Demonstra- 
tion at Waycross, 1927. 

Bulletin 1. Forest Fire Control Policy for 
Georgia. 

Reprint of Georgia Forest Laws 

Biennial Report, 1925-1926. 

These publications may be had free of charge so 
long as the editions last, by applying to the State 
Forester, State Capitol, Atlanta, Ga. 



SEVEN RULES FOR FOREST MANAGEMENT 

1. Keep fires out of the woods. 

2. Thin crowded young stands. 

3. When logging, cut stumps low and use as far 
up the trunk as practicable. 

4. Where there is a market for cordwood tor 
pulpwood, follow logging with a cordwood or pulp- 
wood job, to save broken small trees and stunted 
small trees and to rid the next stand of undesirable 
kinds. 

5. When logging, leave two seed-trees per acre. 

6. If timber does not come in evenly after log- 
ging, plant blank areas; keep the land at work. 

7. Let trees reach eight inches or more breast- 
high before bleeding and bleed one face at a time. 



GEORGIA STATE 
FORESTRY DEPARTMENT 

B. M. LUFBURROW, State Forester 

BULLETIN NO. 3 

HIGHWAY SHADE TREE 
PLANTING 



By 
EITEL BAUER 




Atlanta. Georgia 
May, 1928 



STATE BOARD OF FORESTRY 
ORGANIZATION 

Governor Lamartine G. Hardman 
President 

George H. Carswell, Secretary of State. 

Samuel Washington McCallie, State Geologist. 

James Philander Campbell, Director of Extension, State Col- 
lege of Agriculture. 

Mrs. M. E. Judd, Representing Women's Civic Organizations. 

J. Leonard Rountree, Representing Farming Interest. 

Charles B. Harman, Representing Lumber Manufacturing 
Interest. 

Alexander K. Sessoms, Representing Naval Stores Interest. 

Bonnell Harold Stone, Representing Timber Land Owning 
Interest. 

B. M. LUFBURROW, Secretary 

TECHNICAL STAFF 

Alfred Akerman, B.A., M.F., Director of Forest Management 
and Research. 

Bonnell Harold Stone, Jr., M. F., Director of Education {with- 
out compensation). 

Frederic B. Merrill, B.S., M.F., Assistant State Forester in 
Charge of South Georgia Division. 

Evetett Bascom Stone, Jr., M. F., Assistant State Forester in 
Charge of North Georgia Division. 

Charles Wayne Nuite, B.S.F., Field Assistant, South Georgia 
Division 

Eitel Bauer, B.S.F., Field Assistant, Management and Research 




A beautiful shaded highway near Atlanta, Georgia. 



Highway Shade Tree Planting 



Introduction 

Georgia's highways are being paved at an ever in- 
creasing rate. As much as one hundred miles of 
continuous paving have been constructed and numer- 
ous shorter stretches of highways in the state are 
now paved. It will not be long before Georgia will 
have a system of state highways that will rank with 
the best. But paving a road does not make it ideal 
or mean the end of its development. Another step 
ran be taken which will enhance the qualities of a 
paved road and endow it with life, character, and 
beauty. This step is the planting of shade trees 
along the highways — trees chosen for their natural 
beauty and for their influence on the road, and tin 1 



climate in the vicinity of the road. There is a great 
opportunity for highway planting in this state as 
very little has been clone. And now is the time to 
start a program of planting that will keep pace with 
the completion of the highways. 

Public sentiment in favor of highway planting is 
rapidly gaining headway in Georgia. Various 
Women's Clubs and other civic organizations 
throughout the state are interesting themselves m 
this commendable movement. A few miles of high- 
ways have already been bordered with shade trees 
but unfortunately there is no concerted action, nor 
any organization or individual that has the respon- 
sibility for more extensive planting. 

This department has received many inquiries for 
information on this subject and it is the purpose of 
these pages to answer the questions that are asked, 
in so far as our information goes. Requests for 
information not covered in this bulletin should be 
directed to the State Forester, State Capitol, 
Atlanta. 

Highway planting has been carried on for many 
years in northern and eastern states and a large 
store of information regarding their methods and 
results is available. But for our conditions and 
kinds of trees there is a woeful lack of data. Euro- 
pean countries have had their highways bordered 
with shade trees for centuries but dissimilarities in 
the methods and species, or kinds of trees, used pre- 
vent us from having the benefit of their experience. 
But in spite of our inexperience we can not go far 
wrong if we adhere to the safe principles of using 
trees that are known to grow well in the locality to 
be planted; using care in planting; and giving the 
trees proper and intelligent care. 



General Considerations 

Planting had best be done along paved highways 
for several reasons. Along dirt roads every tree for 
a certain distance from the center of the road is cat 
down so that the road will dry ont quickly after a 
rain and mud-holes will not develop. Until a high- 
way is paved its location may be changed; but after 
being paved its location is permanent. If shade 
trees were planted along a dirt road they would 
have to be abandoned if the location were changed 
at the time of paving the road. There would be a 
waste of time, money, and planting stock, and the 
purpose of the planting would be defeated. 

Shade trees can be planted beside gravel and 
oyster-shell roads if the roads are properly drained. 
Roads of these types drain comparatively fast and 
shade trees do a great good by preventing the roads 
from drying out too much and by keeping the road- 
bed in a better mechanical condition. 

If planting is to be done on the edges of culti- 
vated fields, although within the right-of-way, the 
consent of the owner of the field should be obtained. 
The trees will shade a portion of his growing crops, 
doing some damage, and the owner should certainly 
be consulted. From past experience it is not antic- 
ipated that permission to plant will be withheld 
in such cases. 

Reasons For Planting 

Trees are planted beside highways as much for 
their aesthetic effect as for their shade. Their nat- 
ural beauty is a thing which is immediately appar- 
ent. The kind of tree and its physical condition in- 
fluence its appreciation by travelers. Not so appar- 
ent, but more important, are the indirect effects of 



their shading the road, which result in cheaper 
maintenance and lightening of the tax-payers' bur- 
den. Shade trees also exert an influence upon the 
atmosphere in the vicinity of the road. There is 
another reason gaining in popularity, for planting 
trees along a highway. Memorial plantings have 
increased steadily since the World War. Several 
stretches of highway in Georgia have been planted 
with shade trees as a memorial to war heroes. In 
some instances the entire planting commemorates 
some certain group — in others, a tree is planted for 
each soldier or sailor who gave his life. 

Arrangement of Shade Trees 

Because of Georgia's varied topography and con- 
sequent different types of roads no flat rule can be 
laid down for the arrangement of plantings. Along 
straight roads the trees can be planted in a row on 
either side of the highway — each tree the same dis- 
tance from the next and the rows the same distance 
from the center of the road. Where there is a curve 
in the road the inside of the curve must be left clear 
or else the trees must be set back such a distance 
from the road that drivers may have a view of the 
curve. The State Highway Department of Georgia 
has now extended its right-of-way from eighty to 
one hundred feet. This additional footage is suffi- 
cient to allow shade trees to be planted on the in- 
side of most curves found on a paved road. Very 
sharp curves on these roads are the exception. 

On steep cuts and fills planting would probably 
have to be discontinued but this would be deter- 
mined by the depth or height of the cut or fill. If 
planting should be done where cuts and fills occur 
the trees must not be planted on the slopes of the 
cuts or fills, but at least five feet back from the 
edge, regardless of the previous spacing. 






An illustration of bad planting. The trees were planted barely one foot 
from the edge of the pavement, placing it in danger of being cracked by the 
roots. In another year the branches of the trees will grow into the wires 
making it necessary to cut the trees off squarely. 

If the highway is very winding a better arrange- 
ment than planting in rows is planting in groups. 
With a little care given to the placing of the groups 
vistas can be opened. Planting in groups will bet- 
ter suit the conditions and also have a more natural 
appearance. 

A large proportion of state highways are through 
wooded areas. In these places very little, if any, 



planting will be necessary. Trees of good kinds and 
spaced about right can be developed to make very 
satisfactory shade trees. 

One objection to planting in rows is that the effect 
is artificial, and another is that several miles of 
such planting would become very monotonous to 
travelers. But these objections are met, for the 
most part, by the trees themselves. No two of them 
will grow at the same rate or in the same manner 
and the difference between individuals will furnish 
more than a little variety. Some trees will die and 
gaps will appear at irregular intervals making the 
planting still less artificial. Using a mixture of 
species will also help to dispel these objections. 

Kinds of Trees for Highway Planting 

The choice of the species or kinds to be used is 
determined by many factors among which are alti- 
tude, moisture, and soils. In general, it is best to 
use the species that grow naturally in the locality 
to be planted. One would not plant a hemlock or 
other mountain tree near Savannah. It is often 
possible to use trees that are growing naturally by 
the highway, approximately properly spaced and of 
a good kind. It is hoped that trees native to Geor- 
gia will be most widely used. Georgia has a very 
wide variety of shade trees and it should not be 
necessary to introduce strange species. In the fol- 
lowing list a few outstanding species not found 
growing naturally in Georgia are mentioned. These 
are recommended because of their very desirable 
qualities. There are many other species which can 
be used but the list is composed of those trees es- 
pecially suited for shade, longevity, freedom from 
disease, and because of their aesthetic qualities. 



Lower State — Coastal Plain Region 

I )eciduous* Evergreen 



Low, damp, —Water Ash 


Magnolia 


Swampy 


Water oak 


White Cedar 


Places 


Willow oak 


Palmetto 
Spruce (swamp) 

Pine 
Live oak 
Laurel oak 


Upper 


— White oak 


Longleaf pine 


Drier 


Water oak 


Red cedar 


Places 


Crepe myrtle 


Magnolia 




Dogwood 


Live oak 




Sycamore 


Laurel oak 




Hackberry 






Scaly-bark 






Hickory 






Pecan 






Willow oak 






Middle State — Piedmont Region 


Low, 


—Black Walnut 


Eed cedar 


Moist 


Tulip tree 


.Magnolia 


Places 


Water ash 
Basswood 

(Linden) 
Dogwood 
Silverbell 
Scaly-bark 

Hickory 
Willow oak 


Loblolly pine 



♦Deciduous trees are those which drop their leaves every year. Evergreen 
trees retain their leaves for several years. 



Moist 


— Black walnut 


Ked cedar 


Slopes 


Water oak 


Magnolia 




Sycamore 


Loblolly pine 




White oak 






Willow oak 






White elm 






Pin oak 






Pecan 






Dogwood 






Crepe myrtle 




Dry 


— Willow oak 


Red cedar 


Ridges 


Southern red 


Loblolly pine 




oak 


Shortleaf pine 




Pin oak 






Pecan 






Dogwood 






Crepe myrtle 






Upper State — Mountain Region 


Moist 


— Black walnut 


Hemlock 


Coves 


Tulip tree 

Beech 

Basswood 

(Linden) 
W 7 hite ash 
Silverbell 
Willow oak 


White pine 


Lower 


— White elm 


White pine 


Slopes 


Northern red 


Red cedar 




oak 


Norway Spruce 




W T ater oak 


. 




Pin oak 






Sugar maple 






Beech 






Dogwood 






White oak 





10 



Upper —Northern red White pine 

Slopes oak Red cedar 

Chestnut oak 

White oak 

Dogwood 

NOTES ON KINDS OF TREES RECOMMENDED FOR 
HIGHWAY PLANTING 

Ash — Water (Fraxinus caroliniana and F. floridana) — Native 
to the swamps and ponds of the Coastal Plain. At- 
tains a height of 40' and a diameter of l'-2\ Its 
small flowers appear in February and March. Forms 
a narrow, round-topped head. 
White (F. americana) — Native to the coves and river 
bottoms of the northern half of the state. A tree 
sometimes 80' high and 2' in diameter. Forms, in 
the open, a round or pyramidal crown. Very good 
for shade tree planting. 

Basswood — American Linden (Tilia americana) — Found in 
the rich, alluvial bottom-lands in the northern part 
of the state. Is often 100' high and 3' in diameter. 
Forms a large crown, giving a deep sh'ade. 

Beech — (Fagus grandifolia) — Found in the northern part of 
Georgia along the lower slopes. When grown in the 
open is short-stemmed — usually about 50' high — 
with a large, spreading, round crown, the branches 
slightly drooping. An excellent shade tree. 

Cedar — Red (Juniperus virginiana) — A well-known tree found 
throughout the state 'and thriving on a variety of 
soils. Is much in use for ornamental planting. Liv- 
ing specimens are often used for community Christ- 
mas trees. A good tree for memorial planting. 
Cannot be planted in the vicinity of an apple 
orchard. 
White (Chamaecyparis thyoides) — Found only in deep 
swamps and ponds in the Coastal Plain Region. This 
tr,ee has a long, narrow, conical shape even when 
grown in the open. In groups or rows they are very 
picturesque. 

Crepe Myrtle (Lagerstroemia indica) — An introduced plant 
very much in demand for drives, avenues, etc. The 

11 



flowers are red, white, or pink, according to the 
stock. A very pretty tree wherever planted. Can 
be used in combination with other planting. 

Dogwood — Flowering (Cornus florida) — Found throughout 
the state. Grows best in the shade of other trees. 
Its profusion of white flowers are a beautiful sight 
in the spring. The drooping, spreading crown gives 
a delightful shade. 

Elm — White (Ulmus americana) — Distributed infrequently in 
Georgia but planted extensively for park and street 
shade trees. A longlived majestic tree with lofty 
arching branches, forming 'an enormous crown. 
Justly famed for its shade. 

Hackberry — (Celtis occidentalis) — Reaches its best develop- 
ment in the southeastern part of the state but is 
found on all varieties of soils. Planted for street 
shade trees in many towns. When grown in the 
open the crown is very symmetrical. 

Hemlock — Eastern (Tsuga canadensis) — A beautiful conifer 
found in the coves and cool slopes of the mountains 
where it often reaches a height of over 100' and a 
diameter of 3' or more. Its pyramidal form makes 
it a very desirable tree for shade and ornamental 
purposes. 

Hickory — Sc'aly-bark (Carya ovata) — Native to rich, damp 
soils throughout the state. Besides its worth as a 
shade tree, it is also valuable for its sweet, well- 
flavored nuts. This tree would serve a dual pur- 
pose when used in highway planting. 

Magnolia — (Magnolia grandiflora) — One of Georgia's best 
known and loved trees. Is indigenous to low-lying 
d'amp places in the Coastal Plain but is planted 
through most of the state for shade and ornament. 
Its evergreen foliage and white blooms form a beau- 
tiful combination. 

Maple — Sugar (Acer saccharum) — Not a native of Georgia 
but is extensively planted as a shade tree. It is 
better suited for this purpose than the other maples 
because it is longlived and not so liable to damage 
from insects, disease, or breakage. The rich tints 
of its autumnal foliage are very pleasing. 

12 



Oak — Chestnut (Quercus montana) — Found in the mountain- 
ous part of the state as far down as the higher foot- 
hills. It attains a height of about 60' and forms a 
spreading crown, making an excellent shade tree. 
Laurel (Q. laurifolia) — A tree native to rich hummocks 
and the sandy banks of streams in the lower Coastal 
Plain Region. Occasionally 100' high with a dia- 
meter of 3'-4'. Has a shapely broad, dense, round- 
topped crown. The persistent lustrous green leaves 
help to make this a very handsome shade tree. 

Live (Q. virginiana) — Indigenous to the lower Coastal 
Plain Region. This tree is well-known for its shade 
and ornamental properties. It forms a wide-spread- 
ing crown often over 100' across and a massive, 
buttressed trunk. As the leaves do not fall until 
new ones appear it is evergreen in appearance. 

Pine (Q. palustris) — An introduced tree rapidly gaining 
favor for shade planting. It is rather slow- 
growing after transplanting but soon starts its more 
rapid growth. It attains a height of 40'-50' and a 
diameter of about 2'. Forms a large round-topped 
crown. 

Red — northern (Q. borealis) — Native to the northern 
part of the state. A Valuable forest tree and equally 
desirable for its shade. Often reaches a height of 
80' and when open-grown forms a wide-spreading 
rounded crown. 

Red — southern (Q. rubra) — A common oak in the Pied- 
mont Region. It grows to a height of 70'-80' and 
a diameter of 2'-3'. Is well-suited for a shade tree 
because of its handsome appearance, freedom from 
disease, and long life. 

Water — (Q. nigra) — A well-known Georgia tree found 
throughout the state on all except the driest soils. 
Very much in demand for city street planting and 
as a lawn tree. Is easy to transplant and grows 
thriftily. An excellent shade tree. 

White (Q. alba) — Another well-known tree found 
throughout the state. Individual trees attain an 
immense growth in girth and crown and there are 
many magnificent specimens of this tree in the state. 
Although of relatively slow growth it is very val- 
uable for highway and street planting. 

13 



Willow (Q. phellos) — A tree found in all but the northern 
part of the state. Often grows to a height of 70'-80'. 
Has light-green, slender, willow-like leaves. Forms 
a spreading, round-topped head and is admirably 
suited for shade purposes for which it has been 
widely used in yards and along streets. 

Palmetto — Cabbage (Sabal palmetto) — An inhabitant of the 
lower Coastal Region. Reaches a height of about 
30' and a diameter of l'-2'. Its outward curving and 
drooping fan-shaped leaves tare very picturesque. An 
excellent tree for memorial planting. 

Pecan — (Carya pecan) — Native to the southern half of the 
state. It is best known for its fruit, of which there 
are several very good varieties but also makes a 
desirable shade tree. It would serve 4 a dual purpose 
in highway planting. 

Pine — Loblolly (Pinus taeda) — This tree, also known as Old- 
field Pine, is found in the Piedmont and upper 
Coastal Plain Regions of Georgia. Will grow to a 
height of about 100' and a diameter of 2'-3\ Has 
rather long sl'ate-green needles. When open-grown 
forms an oval crown with limbs reaching almost to 
the ground. A fast-growing pine. 

Longleaf (P. palustris) — A well-known pine in the 
Coastal Plain Region where it is valuable for timber 
and naval stores. Reaches a height of over 100' and 
when grown in the open has 'a rather open crown 
extending over half the length of the tree. Its long 
needles and purple flowers on new spring shoots 
make this a handsome specimen tree. 

Shortleaf (P. echinata) — Found throughout the Pied- 
mont Region of the state. A valuable timber tree 
but of relatively slow growth. Often grows to a 
height of over 100' The needles are short and dark 
blue-green. Forms a pyramidal crown. 

Spruce (P. glabra) — Found widely scattered among the 
hardwoods in swamps and ponds in the lower Coastal 
Plain Region. It resembles the white pine of the 
mountains. Would make a good tree for highway 
planting along marshy stretches. 

White (P. strobus) — Indigenous to the Mountain Region 
of the state where it is found on a variety of site 
conditions from cool moist coves to dry rocky ridges. 

14 



Extensively handled by ornamental nurseries a& 

shade trees and specimen plants. Is very desirable 

for highway planting. Suggested for memorial 
plantings. 

Silverbell (Halesia Carolina) — A not-very-well-known tree of 
the northern and especially the mountainous part of 
the state. Grows to a height of 50'-60' and a dia- 
meter of l'-3'. It gets its name from the pendent 
rows of white flowers appearing in the spring before 
the leaves are fully developed. This tree should be 
better known for shade planting. 

Spruce — Norway (Picea excelsa) — An introduced species in 
the Mountain Region where it thrives in cool, moist 
situations. It reaches a height of 60'-80'. The 
crown is pyramidal in sh'ape, the lower branches 
almost sweeping the ground. 

Sycamore — (Platanus occidentalis) — Occurs throughout the 
state. It often grows to a height of over 100' and a 
diameter of 4'-6'. Its branched trunk and spreading 
crown make this a desirable shade tree. The Euro- 
pean sycamore is also planted for shade and is a 
better tree for this purpose because of its resistance 
to disease. 

Tulip Tree — Yellow Poplar (Liriodendron tulipifera) — A val- 
uable timber tree found throughout the state. Reaches 
a height of over 100' and a diameter of 3'-5'. When 
grown in the open it forms a large, rounded, spread- 
ing crown. Its odd-shaped leaves and beautiful 
tulip-like flowers make this a very attractive tree. 
It is being more widely planted for shade and orna- 
ment. 

Walnut — Black (Juglans nigra) — Found in the middle and 
northern parts of the state in rich, moist bottoms 
particularly. Well known for its use in the manu- 
facture of furniture. The nuts are extensively used 
in confections. When open-grown this tree has a 
short, thick stem and a wide-spreading crown. A 
good tree for memorial planting. 

Size of Trees to Plant 
For best results from the planting' the trees used 
should be very small. It is better to use small plant- 

15 



ing stock and have a successful planting than to try 
for an immediate effect with large trees and pos- 
sibly lose as many as half of them. 

The size of the trees to use is dependent upon the 
kind. A few characteristic trees are mentioned to 
show how this works out, and to give an idea of the 
size trees to use, taking the trees mentioned as in- 
dicative of all trees coming in their classification. 
For instance, white pine and Norway spruce are 
representative of ornamental conifers ; pines, of 
coniferous forest trees ; and oaks, of trees with long- 
taproots. 

Oaks, walnuts and other trees having a long tap- 
root should not be over a year old when transplant- 
ed. Because of the difficulty in lifting them, even 
when only a year old and the trouble of handling 
trees of this kind it may be a better idea to plant 
seed in the desired places. 

Magnolias and live oaks, both broadleaved ever- 
greens, should be very small when transplanted. 
Results will be better if they are only a foot high. 
The roots must be disturbed as little as possible 
and preferably balled. 

The water oak and practically all the fibrous 
rooted deciduous trees such as the dogwood can be 
moved in any size up to about ten feet in height. 

Of the conifers mentioned, longieaf pine should 
not be planted when over one year old. This tree 
develops an enormous taproot during the first few 
years of its life. It may be best to plant seed in the 
desired places, putting from three to ten seed in 
each spot. The other pines can be planted up to 
three years of age. These forest pines do not re- 
quire a ball of earth around their roots but the roots 
must be kept moist and protected from sun and 
wind. 



16 



White pine over three years old, hemlock, and 
Norway spruce, should not be over three feet high 
when transplanted. They must have a ball of earth 
around their roots. 

Red cedar and white cedar can be transplanted 
in any size up to about five feet in height. It is 
better to have the roots balled but not absolutely 
necessary if the roots are kept moist and the trees 
are transplanted immediately. 

Small planting stock should be used in all cases, 
if possible. Smaller trees can be bought for con- 
siderably less than larger trees. And whether the 
trees are from a nursery or from the woods, the 
smaller ones stand a better chance of being suc- 
cessfully transplanted. There is danger, also, in 
using stock that is too small. The trees should be 
about one foot high at least. 

Where to Obtain Trees 

Some of the trees in the list are handled by orna- 
mental and forest nurseries. Nursery-grown trees 
should be used wherever possible. Nurseries can 
furnish better looking and healthier stock than is 
generally found growing wild. The trees will be 
pruned at the nursery before being delivered and 
this operation will be spared the planter. Nursery 
stock can be lifted from the ground with less injury 
to the plants than can wild stock. The charge made 
for trees by the nursery is very often cheaper than 
the time spent in locating w r ild stock. 

For some of the kinds of trees there is no choice 
because they are not enough in demand to be grown 
in nurseries and wild stock must be used. Wild stock 
must be pruned before being re-planted. The fol- 
lowing directions for pruning apply to wild stock 
especially. 

17 



Pruning 

Pruning is very necessary at the time of trans- 
planting. The root system of the plant is generally 
unavoidably injured and reduced. To induce rapid 
healing, the bruised and injured roots should be 
cleanly cut just above the injury. The crown, or 
branches of the tree, must be cut back to preserve 
its balance with the decreased root system. The 
crown can be shaped by proper pruning. 





Fig. 1. Diagram showing proper pruning of the crown and roots. The 
heavy marks in "a" show where pruning should be done. Note the rounded 
shape of the pruned crown in "b". 

By shaping the crown at this time and starting it 
right, the tree is given a better appearance and 
less trouble will be had with its form later. 

All cuts should be made close above a bud, and it 



18 



is preferable to make the cut at a bud which will 
start a shoot in the desired direction. 




Fig. 2. Diagram showing how cut should be made in pruning branches. 
By making the cut close above a bud no stub is left to rot and endanger 
the tree. 




Fig. 3. Diagram showing how the choice of the bud left determines the 
direction of future shoots. Heavy marks show where cut is made. Dotted 
lines indicate future shoots. 

Branches which are removed should be cut as 
close as possible to the stem. No stubs should be 
left. The decay of stubs left from pruning offers 
an entrance to insects and diseases and is often the 



19 



cause of cavities. No cuts should be made hori- 
zontally, but always on a slant so that water will 
not collect on the exposed surface. 

Any leaves remaining on broadleaved trees, either 
deciduous or evergreen, when they are transplant <<! 
should be removed. 

Spacing 

The trees should be set at least ten feet from the 
edge of the road. This does not mean from the edge 
of the pavement but from the edge of the shoulder, 
or dirt strip, that is left on either side of the paved 
area. At this distance the large^ spreading roots 
of some trees will not be able to damage the paving 
The distance between the trees varies with the 
kinds. Some trees spread their branches more than 
others and require more space in which to develop 
The live oak often spreads its branches over an area 
100 feet or more in diameter while the silverbell 
may never have a diameter over forty feet. As a 
general rule, the distance between trees should 
never be less than twenty-five feet. For some of the 
larger-growing kinds of trees forty or fifty feet 
would be a better spacing. 

Planting 

The success of the undertaking is largely assured 
by the care used in planting the trees. Planting 
can be done from the first of November until the 
last of March, depending upon the locality. In the 
extreme southern part of the state planting should 
be done only in January and February. 

Good, healthy, well-shaped stock should be used. 
There should be a minimum of time between ob- 
taining the stock and planting it in the desired 
places. The roots should be kept shaded and moist 

20 



and protected from the sun and the wind while the 
plants are oat of the ground. Wet burlap or crocus 
sacks are excellent for protecting the roots. 

The hole dug for each tree should be a little lar- 
ger than necessary to accommodate all the roots 
without the least crowding. The extra expense of 
large holes is more than compensated for by the 
results. It is better policy to plant a few trees cor- 
rectly than to plant a large number in a haphazard 
hurried way. When the holes are dug the topsoil 
should be set aside and mixed with well-composted 
stable manure. This mixture is put in the bottom 
of the hole and covered with a light layer of fresh 
earth to prevent the roots coining in contact with 
the manure. The hole is now ready for planting. 

If possible, two men should plant each tree, one 
to hold it in the jjroper position and the other to 
tamp the earth around the roots. It is assumed that 
the tree, if a conifer, has a ball of earth around the 
roots. The best side of the plant is turned toward 
the highway and the plant lined in with the others 
and spaced correctly. The plant is set in the hole 
so that the entire ball w 7 ill be covered with earth but 
the plant must not be set over one inch deeper in 
the ground than it was before transplanting. For 
best results plants should be set at least as deep as 
they were before being 1 moved. This depth can 



FRbjh 

EARTH 



EARTH MUST B£ 
PACKED U/VDEft BALL 





Fig. 4. Diagram showing the prepa'ation of the hole and the method 
of planting conifers. 



21 



easily be seen from the discoloration on the stem 
of the tree. Earth must be packed around the ball 
and under it so that no large air spaces are left. 
The handle of a D-handled spade is well suited for 
tamping. When the hole is about three-fourths full 
of packed dirt enough water to fill the hole should 
be poured around the plant. When this has soaked 
down, the hole is filled with earth. The surface 
should be left cup-like with the stem of the tree as 
the center of the depression. This is done so that 
rain water will be guided against the plant where 
it is needed. 

In the case of deciduous trees the crowns and 
roots must be pruned (see Pruning). The hole is 
prepared in the same manner as for conifers. The 
tree is set in the hole not over one inch deeper than 
it was before being moved. Care must be taken to 
see that the roots are kept in their natural position 
and not bent, curled, or twisted to fit the hole. The 



C UP- LIKE- 




Fig. 5. Diagram showing the preparation of the ho'e and the r.-.cihod 
of planting deciduous trees. 

hole should be made to suit the tree. Earth must 
be packed around each root. Water is added in the 
same way as for conifers and the rest of the treat- 
ment is the same. 

After a day or two every tree should be visited 
and the earth around them firmed by stepping on 

22 



it, at the same time keeping the tree in an upright 
position. They should not lean in any direction. 

Care After Planting 

Probably of more importance than planting is the 
care of the trees after planting. Very often people 
think that when they have planted a tree their re- 
sponsibility ends. In spite of the most careful plant- 
ing some trees will die and it will be necessary to 
till in the gaps that form from time to time to keep 
the planting complete. 

Insects and diseases are always waiting to attack 
trees that are bruised or injured in any way thai 
will give them an opening. For this reason the pos- 
sibilities of injury to the trees by stock must be con- 
sidered before a planting is made. Space is lack- 
ing in this pamphlet for descriptions of and rem- 
edies for the insects and diseases that are liable to 
attack the shade trees mentioned. (This informa- 
tion may be had by a request to this department or 
to the State Entomologist). 

Dead wood and branches must be cut out of the 
shade trees to improve their appearance and to re- 
move a source of danger to traffic. 

Pruning of deformed branches and lower branches 
will be necessary. Lower branches obstruct the 
view, are dangerous to traffic and their removal will 
stimulate height growth. They also often interfere 
with cotton and hay traffic, the twigs becoming deco- 
rated witli these products, giving the tree a shabby 
appearance. Branches which interfere with wires 
must be trimmed. 

Living branches should only be cut when it is 
absolutely necessary to do so and the wound painted 
with creosote or some other material impervious to 
water. 

23 



As the trees grow older some cavities will form 
and tree surgery will be necessary. 

It has been stated that there are few organiza- 
tions which have responsibility for planting and 
there are none which have the responsibility of up- 
keep. It has been suggested that the upkeep and 
care of the shade trees be handled by the State High- 
way Department. Being planted on the right-of- 
way of the higihway department the trees auto- 
matically come under the control of that depart- 
ment in so far as they affect the highway. At pres- 
ent the Highway Commission does not take care of 
shade trees along the highways, nor does its organi- 
zation include any means for doins: so. The fol- 
lowing organization has been proposed. 

The state would be divided into several districts 
and a man who understands the care of trees would 
be stationed in each district. He would have the 
power of a foreman and would command road crews 
not engaged in highway maintenance to do improve- 
ment work on the shade trees, under his direct su- 
pervision. He would be furnished with a light truck 
equipped with tools for trimming, pruning, spray- 
ing, etc., for a four or five man crew and would 
travel in his district as the work demanded. He 
could time his movements to coincide with section 
crews that would otherwise be idle. The men 
chosen for the districts should be men who have a 
practical knowledge of the care of trees. The trees 
can easily become eye-sores and be terribly injured 
by ignorant and careless handling. 

In some of the New England states the care.ol 
highway shade trees has been undertaken by the 
state highway departments for many years and the 
work has been handled very satisfactorilv. 



24 



Results of Planting 

The chief result of planting- shade trees is the 
beautincation of our highways. Shade trees are a 
source of constant enjoyment to residents and an 
inducement to visitors to remain in the state. Tour- 
ists will wish to stay longer in such surroundings 
and will have a different story to tell of Georgia's 
highway system. 

The presence of the trees and their shade tend to 
create a more even moisture condition along the 
road. Because of the ramifications of the root sys- 
tems the soil adjacent to the road is better drained. 
Water will not collect to form mudholes. Dust will 
be held down because the earth will never bake and 
fully dry out and the force of the wind will be 
broken to some extent. 

Better moisture conditions mean a better condi- 
tion of the roadbed, entailing less maintenance. 
This means a direct benefit to tax-payers. 

A cleaner, purer atmosphere along the highways 
will be a result of shade trees. The exact relation 
of trees to atmospheric conditions has never been 
fully determined but it is known that the presence 
of trees tends to prevent sudden and extreme at- 
mospheric changes. The trees seem to exert an 
equalizing influence on temperature and humidity. 
While only a double row of trees will not have a 
marked effect in this way, their influence will surely 
be felt, 

Shade trees furnish a beautiful permanent me- 
morial to our soldiers and sailors who gave their 
lives for their country. The deep shade and rugged 
beauty are peculiarly suited for such a purpose. 

Many native and migratory birds will be attracted 

to the highways and roadsides where they will be 

25 



an added pleasure to travelers. Under present con- 
ditions, except in wooded stretches, birds are seldom 
seen or heard near the highways. 

Where trees such as pecans, hickories, and wal- 
nuts are planted the nuts would be available for the 
public, or at least it is hoped so. 

Costs of Planting 

There are no available data on the cost of plant- 
ing shade trees along highways but a rough esti- 
mate can be made, assuming a price for the trans- 
plants. Figuring on the cost of the stock, handling 
it, preparing the hole, and planting, the cost would 
vary from about one dollar to four dollars or more 
per tree. The kind of tree, its size, and the distance 
it has to be taken to be planted all directly affect 
the cost. If the planting is for memorial purposes 
the cost of placing suitable markers must be added. 

Planting in Other States 

In Massachusetts the State Highway Commission 
has authority over all planting, trimming, cutting, 
and removal of shade trees on its right-of-way. 
Since before 1899 laws relating to shade trees have 
been enforced. Tree wardens have been appointed 
to take care of shade trees not under the jurisdiction 
of the highway department. A great deal has been 
accomplished toward planting shade trees and caring 
for them. 

Since 1922 New Hampshire has had laws protect- 
ing highway trees and serving as inducements for 
such planting. Many miles of memorial highways 
have been dedicated since the Great War. Trees 
planted along the highways are deeded to the high- 
way department and the wood is reserved for the 

26 



use of the owner of the abutting property if the tree 
is removed at any time. 

The movement toward shading the highways has 
progressed along lines similar to these in many 
other states throughout the country. 

Recommendation 

Planting shade trees along Georgia highways is 
highly to be recommended because of both the direct 
and indirect results of such planting. It is hoped 
that one or more public-spirited organizations in 
each community will sponsor this movement and 
help beautify the highways of the state. Before a 
planting is done provision should be made for the 
care of the trees after planting, as it becomes neces- 
sary. This department is willing to help the move- 
ment toward highway shade tree planting in any 
way possible for it to do so. 



27 



Summary 

1. Public sentiment in favor of highway shade tree 
planting is growing in Georgia. 

2. Planting should be confined to paved highways. 

3. Owners of abutting property should be con- 
sulted before a planting is made. 

4. Trees are planted for their shade, beauty, effect 
on climatic and road conditions, and as memor- 
ials to our war dead. 

5. Trees may be planted in rows or groups at 
least ten feet from the edge of the beaten road 
and at least twenty-five feet apart. 

6. Planting on the inside of curves must be set 
back to give motorists an unobscured view of 
the curve. 

7. Native Georgia species should be used if pos- 
sible, especially trees already on the ground, of 
good kinds, and approximately properly spaced. 

8. Large trees should not be used for best results. 
Trees one foot in height or less do best. Decidu- 
ous trees should be pruned, roots and branches. 
Conifers should have a ball of earth around 
their roots. 

9. Care must be taken in the preparation of the 
holes and the actual planting of the trees. 

10. Care after planting is as important as planting, 
or more so. 

11. It is suggested that the care of the trees be the 
responsibility of the highway department, 

12. Costs are affected by the kind of tree, its size, 
and the distance it must be taken to be planted. 

28 



Bibliography 

Shade Trees— G. E. Stone; E. A. Start; H. T. 
Fernald — Massachusetts. 

Tree Planting Book — American Tree Association. 

Protection of Shade Trees in Towns and Cities — 
Bulletin 131, Connecticut Agricultural Experiment 
Station. 

Shade Trees in New Hampshire — N. H. College 
Extension Service. 

Forest Trees of Georgia — Ga. State College of 
Agriculture, 1926. 

Manual of the Trees of North America — Charles 
Sprague Sargent. 



29 



PUBLICATIONS OF THE DEPARTMENT 
OF FORESTRY 

Leaflet 1. The Loblolly Pine. 

Leaflet 2. Forest Fire Prevention. 

Leaflet 3. Report of the Forest Fire Line Dem- 
onstration at Waycross, 1927. 

Bulletin 1. Forest Fire Control Policy for Geor- 
gia. 

Bulletin 2. Forest Thinning. 

Reprint of Georgia Forest Laws. 

Biennial Report, 1925-1926. 

These reports may be had free of charge so long 
as the editions last, by applying to the State For- 
ester, State Capitol, Atlanta, Georgia. 



February, 1929 



Bulletin No. 4 



Georgia Forest Service 



B. M. LUFBURROW, State Forester 



FOREST PLANTING 



By 
EITEL BAUER 




Atlanta, Georgia 



STATE BOARD OF FORESTRY 

Governor Lamartine G. Hardman, President. 

George H. Carswell, Secretary of State. 

Samuel W. McCallie, State Geologist. 

James Phil Campbell, Director of Extension, State College of 
Agriculture. 

Mrs. M. E. Judd, Representing Women's Civic Organizations. 

J. Leonard Rountree, Representing Farming Interests. 

Charles B. Harman, Representing Lumber Manufacturing In- 
terest. 

Alexander K. Sessoms, Representing Naval Stores Interest. 

Bonnell H. Stone, Representing Timber Land Owning Interest. 

B. M. Lufburrow, Secretary. 

TECHNICAL STAFF 

Burley M. Lufburrow, B.S.F.E., State Forester. 

Charles A. Whittle, B.A., Director of Education and Utili- 
zation. 

Frederic B. Merrill, B.S., M.F., Assistant State Forester in 
Charge of South Georgia Division. 

Everett B. Stone, Jr., M.F., Assistant State Forester in Charge 
of North Georgia Division. 

Charles W. Nuite, B.S.F., District Forester. 

Charles N. Elliott, Field Assistant, Management and Forest 
Parks. 



Forest Planting 

By Eitel Bauer 

INTRODUCTION 

Georgia's large forest area is composed of lands in saw- 
timber, in second-growth and abandoned farm land beginning 
to revert to forests. The care of these forests is of prime im- 
portance, but reforestation of idle lands is also of vital con- 
cern. 

Natural seeding, artificial seeding or sowing, and planting 
small trees are the main methods of reforestation. Natural seed- 
ing takes place to such an extent in the South that the necessi- 
ty for artificial planting is confined to a comparatively small 
area. 

Some conditions which make planting advisable are: (1) 
Where natural reproduction does not occur because of the ab- 
sence of seed-trees. (2) Where natural reproduction is incom- 
plete or irregularly spaced. (3) Where undesirable kinds of 
trees are coming in. (4) Where it is cheaper to plant than to 
leave seed-trees — that is, if the value of the seed-trees as tim- 
ber is greater than the cost of planting. (5) When it is not 
desirable to wait for natural reproduction. 

POINTS TO CONSIDER 

Planting is not advised if the area to be planted is not to 
receive protection from fire. A light fire in a young stand 
may completely destroy it and the investment become a total 
loss. The age at which trees can survive a fire depends on the 
kind of tree. For instance, long-leaf pine can survive a light 
fire when three years old, while slash pine up to eight years 
of age may be killed outright in the same fire. In older stands, 
though the trees are not killed, fire checks growth. The re- 
sult is the same as if the planting had been delayed several years. 
The annual cost of fire protection is very small, seldom over 
five cents per acre, and may be less for large areas. 



KINDS TO PLANT 

The kinds of trees to plant is determined by the locality, 
soil and moisture conditions of the land, and products de- 
sired. The products desired also determine spacing in setting 
out trees. 

The locality plays a large part because of the restricted 
range of some of the best forest trees. In the mountain and 
upper Piedmont sections of Georgia hardwoods predominate. 
Here can be planted black walnut, white and red oak, yellow 
poplar, hickory, white ash, and black locust, to mention some 
of the more valuable trees. White pine, shortleaf pine and 
hemlock are native to that part of the state and can also be 
used. Chestnut blight (Endothia parasitica) is steadily advanc- 
ing over the country until now it appears every chestnut tree 
is doomed. As no remedy or preventive has yet been found for 
this disease it is not advisable to plant chestnut which other- 
wise would be a very desirable tree to grow. 

Along the streams and bottoms of the lower Piedmont sec- 
tion black walnut, white oak, yellow poplar, red gum, hickory, 
and ash are good trees to plant. On the slopes and ridges lob- 
lolly pine and shortleaf pine grow naturally and plantings of 
these two species should be successful. Loblolly pine is better 
than shortleaf pine as it can be grown and harvested in a much 
shorter period. 

In the lime-sinks, ponds, and river and creek swamps of 
South Georgia, cypress, red gum, yellow poplar and ash are 
suitable for planting. But in that region the most extensive 
plantings should be to slash pine and long-leaf pine, both of 
which form the native piney woods, the source of naval stores 
and high-grade pine lumber. Of these two, slash pine is the 
more desirable because of its faster growth, especially during 
the first 30 years, and because of its slightly larger yield of 
naval stores. 

As indicated, the moisture conditions of the soil have a di- 
rect effect on the kinds of trees the land will best support. In 
general, conifers, except hemlock, do better on a relatively dry, 



well-drained soil and grow thriftily on dry, sandy land; where- 
as hardwoods do best on a heavier, moister soil. Soils worn out 
in growing farm crops will support a good growth of trees, 
but better soils will produce a quicker growth and a better qual- 
ity of timber. With few exceptions, forest trees will not thrive 
where drainage is very poor. 

SPACING 

The spacing to use in planting depends on the products 
desired. If fence posts are desired, white oak, pine, black lo- 
cust or osage orange can be planted, and spaced rather close, 
5x5 feet, for example. For ties, the trees used may be oak, 
pine or cypress, and the spacing more than for posts as diam- 
eter growth is wanted rather than height. Pines, cypress and 
sometimes oak are used for poles. In this case spacing should 
be close, about 6x6 feet to stimulate height growth. Trees 
for lumber are spaced to give the best opportunities for both 
height and diameter growth.. Spacing for this purpose should 
not be less than 6x6 feet and may be as much as 8x10 feet. 

The spacing to be used in growing pines for gum produc- 
tion is being studied. There are no reliable figures for long- 
leaf pine, but recent studies in slash pine indicate a spacing of 
6x8 feet as ideal for a young plantation. 

SEEDING 

Despite disadvantages of seeding land directly, this meth- 
od is occasionally used so it is well to know how this is done. 

For broadcast seeding the ground may be prepared by plow- 
ing or by merely clearing the ground of vegetation that would 
keep the seed from making direct contact with soil. Condi- 
tions are seldom favorable for plowing. 

When the ground is prepared a still day preceding or fol 
lowing a rain is chosen to sow the seed so the wind will not 
cause the seed to be distributed unevenly. The seed are sown 
in the same manner as rye or oats and covered by lightly rak- 
ing the ground. 

The best method of direct seeding is to plant the seed in 



spots. Where conditions permit, furrows are made the desired 
distance apart with a disc turn plow. At regular intervals in 
the furrows the earth is smoothed. From three to ten seed 
are dropped in each spot and covered with earth, the depth of 
the covering depending on the kind and size of the seed. 

When not practical to plow furrows seed-spots can be 
made with a mattock or hoe. A small area about a foot in 
diameter is worked thoroughly. The seed are then placed in 
it and covered with earth. 

By using seed-spots the seed receive some degree of protec- 
tion, more so than if they are broadcast over the surface. The 
trees will come up properly spaced. Better germination is as- 
sured as the seed are placed directly in the soil. Fewer seed 
are needed per acre, reducing the cost. 

With a few kinds of trees, seed planting is preferable to 
seedlings for reforestation. This is especially true of trees 
which develop a long tap root, making transplanting unsafe 
and difficult. Such trees are black walnut, most of the oaks, 
hickory and black locust. 

WHERE TO GET SEED 

Seed can be collected from living trees or bought from seed 
dealers. Seed collecting is done in the fall as the seed ripen. 
Methods of collecting vary with the kinds of seed. Pine seed 
can best be secured by following a logging operation just be- 
fore the cones, or burrs, open in the fall, and taking the cones 
from the fallen tops. Collecting cones from standing trees is 
a slow, expensive process. The cones are spread on canvas in 
the sun or on a tight floor where they will receive some heat, 
and as they open the seed will fall out. Any seed remaining 
will drop out if the cones are tapped sharply. 

The seed are then cleaned of their wings by being placed 
in a sack and flailed, or by being rubbed over a screen that 
will just permit the seed to pass through the meshes. By slow- 
ly dropping the flailed seed in a current of air such as high 
wind or produced by an electric fan, the broken wings, chaff 



and light worthless seed will be blown away, leaving good, 
clean seed. 

Nut or acorn-bearing trees, drop their fruit in the fall and 
it can be gathered at that time. Ash seed matures in late sum- 
mer and must be secured before it is scattered by the wind. 
Large pieces of canvas spread under the trees will catch most 
of the ash seed. Yellow poplar seed may be gathered by climb- 
ing the trees and securing the seed between the middle of Sep- 
tember and the last of October. Ash and yellow poplar seed 
need not be cleaned of their wings. 

When the seed are not to be planted until spring they must 
be stored over winter. Methods of keeping seed in good con- 
dition vary with the kind of seed. Pine seed can be kept in 
air-tight mason jars or carboys. Ash and yellow poplar seed 
can be kept in sacks in a cool, dry place out of the reach of 
rats. Nuts and acorns are stored by stratification. A pit is 
dug and a layer of seed spread in the bottom. These are cov- 
ered with a layer of equal depth of sandy earth. Another layer 
of seed is put down, then a layer of earth, until all the seed 
have been stored. Nuts and acorns can also be stored in a dry 
cellar by using the same method as for a pit. 

WHERE TO GET TREES 

"Wild stock" is the name given to trees growing naturally 
in the woods or fields. This type of planting stock is often 
used but is generally more expensive than nursery-grown trees 
because of the time required for locating the plants in the forest 
and the poor results obtained from transplanting. Wild stock 
suffers greatly when transplanted, and even with utmost care, 
it has a high percentage of fatality in comparison with nursery 
stock. Some very successful plantations of pine, though, have 
been started with wild plants taken from old fields and open 
woods. Pines growing naturally in old fields are better suit- 
ed for transplanting than those growing in woods as the latter 
are apt to lack in vitality. 

For best results, however, trees should be started in nur- 
sery beds and set out in their permanent location when one or 



two years old. Nursery-grown trees may be obtained from the 
Forest School Nursery, Athens, Ga., and from commercial 
nurseries which handle this class of stock or they can be grown 
in home nurseries. Most of the forest planting stock in the 
South has been grown in the past in private nurseries operated 
by lumber companies or timber owners, but as the demand for 
forest trees increases, commercial nurseries will give more atten- 
tion to it. Where only small quantities are needed trees can 
be grown in a home nursery. 

HOME NURSERY 

Very little space is required to grow a few thousand trees 
for transplanting. A light, well-drained soil that stays fairly 
moist is best for a nursery. Any ground is suitable that will 
make a good garden, and the preparation of the soil is the same 
as for a garden. The more the soil is worked and pulverized 
the better will be the results. Sticks and stones should be 
eliminated as much as possible. 

The area is laid off in beds and walks. A convenient 
size for the beds is 12 feet long by four feet wide. The walks 
should be slightly lower than the beds and not over three feet 
wide. Frames are made for the beds to prevent the soil wash- 
ing away and to protect the seedlings. 

In Georgia the best season to sow seed is early in the 
spring from February 15 until April 30, the earlier date in 
South Georgia and the later date in the mountainous part of 
the state. Pine seed are sown evenly over the bed or in drills 
not less than six inches apart. Either way is permissible but 
the latter is better as it permits easier and safer removing of the 
trees and makes weeding easier. When broadcast the seed are 
covered by sifting a layer of sand or light, fresh earth over 
them. The depth of the covering depends on the kind and 
size of the seed. Hardwood seeds are spaced farther apart, the 
rows seldom being closer than ten inches. The ideal time to 
put seed in the beds is just before a rain. It is important that 
the beds be kept moist, not wet, until the seed germinate. Wet 

8 



burlap or crocus sacks can be laid over the beds but they must 
be removed as soon as the seedlings appear. 

During the first year the seedlings should receive half shade 
only. With oaks this is not necessary. Lath screens are used 
to shade the beds. The screens are made in sections, each four 
by four feet. The laths are spaced the width of a lath apart 
to give half shade. Wire screens are often necessary for the 
protection of the seed and seedlings from birds and rodents. 

When the seedlings are about an inch high they must be 
thinned out so that they will be about an inch apart in the 




Forest Nursery — Front bed shows half-shade covering. 



rows. The beds will have to be weeded frequently. They 
must never dry out. In ordinary seasons watering may not be 
necessary but provisions should be made for watering the beds 
during very dry periods. 

The frames must be kept in good repair and the screens 
in place to keep rabbits, birds, dogs and squirrels away from 
the seed and seedlings. Moles can be checked with traps, or 
by digging a narrow trench around the beds and filling it with 
lime. 

The production capacity of beds 12x4 feet is determined 

10 



by the kind and amount of seed sown. From four hundred 
to fifteen hundred hardwood seedlings can be grown in one 
bed. Pine seedlings do not require as much space and from 
two to four thousand can be raised in a bed. From one-quar- 
ter to one and a half pounds of pine seed, depending on the 
species of the seed, are necessary to sow one bed 12x4 feet. About 
one-third of a pound of ash seed will sow one bed and about 
one-half pound of yellow poplar will seed a bed and one-half 
to a pound of acorns. 

Most seedlings can be set out the fall after they are started 
in the nursery. Under some circumstances it is best to wait 
until the following spring. Some trees, like white pine, trans- 
plant best when two years old. The seedlings may either be 
left in the beds or after the first year taken from the beds and 
planted about three inches apart in rows eight or ten inches 
apart. From these rows the next year they can be transplanted 
to their permanent location. Seedlings being removed for plant- 
ing in the fall leave the beds available for sowing again the 
next spring. 

After a bed has been in use for three consecutive years it 
is well to grow a green crop to turn under. Seedlings require 
very little fertilizer, but a small amount of well-composted 
stable manure, free from weed seeds, worked into the soil ev- 
ery two years is beneficial. When this is done green crops are 
not necessary. 

PLANTING 

The best time for planting seedlings is in the fall. Many 
advocate spring planting but fall planting is to be preferred in 
this state because the growing season continues until late in De- 
cember. During this fall growing period the seedlings be- 
come established and are ready to make rapid progress in the 
spring. Over most of the state there is practically no danger 
of the seedlings being heaved from the ground by freezing. 
In localities where there is danger of heaving it is better to 
plant in the spring. 

When seedlings are taken from the beds or nursery rows 

11 



they must be handled carefully to prevent injury to the roots. 
The seedlings should be tied in bunches of fifty or one hun- 
dred and placed in buckets of water or covered with wet sacks. 
As soon as possible they should be taken to the scene of plant- 
ing and heeled-in if they are not to be planted immediately. 
Heeling-in consists of digging in shaded, moist soil a V-shaped 
trench about six inches or a foot deep, depending on the size 
of the roots, and placing the bundles of plants in the trench 




CORRECT TWISTED SHALLOW 

Diagram showing correct position of seedling in the ground 

so that the roots and about half of the plants will be covered 
with earth. The ground is then firmed around them. The 
bundles are taken from the ground as needed. When removed 
the bundles are cut loose and the seedlings put in a bucket of 
water thickened with mud or clay. This is called puddling the 
plants. The thin mud forms a protective covering for the 
roots. From this bucket the seedlings are placed directly in the 
plantation. 

The ground needs no preparation for seedlings. If the 
planting is on abandoned farm land the rows can be laid off 
by plowing furrows the desired distance apart and the trees 
planted at regular intervals in the furrows. Under most con- 
ditions plowing is impossible and a hole must be made for each 
tree. Plowing furrows is less expensive than making individ- 
ual holes. In very brushy land an area about four feet in 
diameter can be cleared around each tree to prevent its being 
shaded out. 

Holes for trees can be made with grub-hoe or mattock. 

12 



The holes do not have to be large; just wide enough to spread 
the roots in their natural position and deep enough to allow 
the plant to be set a little deeper than it was in the nursery. 
Important points in planting are to be sure that the roots are 
kept in their natural position and not crowded, bent or twisted, 
and that the earth is packed firmly about them. Air spaces 
around the roots mean the death of the plant. Loose dirt or 
litter is left on the surface as a mulch. 

Planting is done better by two men than one. One man 
makes the holes and clears brush if necessary; the other carries 
the plants and does the actual planting. Two men working 
in this way can plant about 1,000 pine seedlings in a 10-hour 
day. Hardwood seedlings take longer. 

The best weather conditions for planting are a cloudy day 
just before or just after a rain. 

CARE OF THE PLANTATION 
The young plantation needs little care outside of protec- 
tion from fire and livestock. Even a light fire can wipe out 
the entire plantation. If not killed, the young trees are se- 
riously retarded in their growth and the effect is the same as 
if the planting had been retarded several years. Fire protec- 
tion is therefore a highly important measure. Fire breaks can 
be plowed around the area and a watch kept in times of great- 
est danger. 

Stock must not be allowed to run in the plantation for a 
few years after planting. There is danger of the trees being 
eaten or stepped on and crushed. When the trees are five or 
six feet high stock will do very little harm, except to hard- 
woods. 

COSTS OF PLANTING 
The expense of obtaining the small trees will be an impor- 
tant item of cost. The expense of handling and planting will de- 
pend on local wages. By spacing seedlings 6x6 feet two men 
can plant an acre of pine seedlings in 12 hours. The cost of 
the seedlings includes packing and shipping and will range 
from $2.00 to $3.50 per thousand for pines and higher for 
hardwood. 

13 






PUBLICATIONS OF THE DEPARTMENT OF 
FORESTRY 

Leaflet 1. The Loblolly Pine. 

Leaflet 2. Forest Fire Prevention. 

Leaflet 3. Report of the Forest Fire Line Demonstration at 
Waycross, 1927. 

Leaflet 4. Georgia's Forests. 

Leaflet 5. Estimating Standing Timber. 

Bulletin 1. Forest Fire Control Policy for Georgia. 

Bulletin 2. Forest Thinning. 

Bulletin 3. Highway Shade Tree Planting. 

Reprint of Georgia Forest Laws. 

Forests — A Waste Land Product. 

Biennial Report, 1925-26. 



2> 

3b 
5 



Georgia Forest Service 

B. M. LUFBURROW, State Forester 



Jan., 1930 



ATLANTA, GEORGIA 



Bui. 5 



Uses of Georgia Woods 

With Directory of Wood Manufacturers, Saw Mills 
and Dealers in Lumber and Mill Work Materials 
(Third Edition) 




By 



CHARLES A. WHITTLE 

Director of Education and Utilization 





Uses of Georgia Woods 

The value of Georgia's wood products in 1925, as given 
by the United States Census, was $122,000,000. From the 
state's 23,000,000 acres in forests it is possible to grow trees 
that can be utilized to produce commodities worth annually 
more than $122,000,000. To do this, the landowners must 
manage the forests so that they will produce the maximum 
wood growth. This means that the landowner must protect 
the forest from fire, thin it properly, harvest mature trees and 
otherwise practice good forest management. 

But to reali2£ the full value of the state's forest resources 
there should be a full appreciation of the uses of its various 
woods. 

Each year large quantities of building material are shipped 
into Georgia that could as well have been supplied by Georgia 
forests. For instance, white pine, not grown in appreciable 
amounts in the South, is often specified for frames, doors and 
sash for Georgia structures, whereas cypress, yellow pine and 
other southern woods could be used. 

Georgia has a wealth of trees desirable for use in interior 
finishing which it is not using to the greatest advantage 
Nothing is more beautiful and suitable for interior finishing 
than red gum, black walnut and magnolia. Cypress, chest' 
nut, oaks and other trees grown in this state also lend them' 
selves to this purpose. Yet quite a good deal of money is 
spent annually for this class of material produced in other 
sections of the country. 

In the hope of aiding the forest owner to a better under' 
standing of his forest resources and his market, and in the 
hope of stimulating larger demands for Georgia's woods, 
this publication presents brief statements of the character 
and uses of leading commercial woods of the state, and also 
a list of leading saw mills, woodworking plants and lumber 
dealers of Georgia. 

3 



Fire Protection Essential 

Too much stress cannot be laid on forest fire prevention 
as an essential to growing trees with reasonable rapidity and 
for producing sound lumber. When fire passes through a 
Georgia forest as a rule the flames consume only the leaves 
and debris on the forest floor and scar the butts of the large 
trees. But sometimes when there is considerable debris, such 
as is usually left after a logging operation, the flames are so 
intense as to kill a part or all the trees. 

Even when the fire is of the ordinary kind that does not 
kill the larger growth, the harm resulting is that ( 1 ) seed" 
lings are killed; (2) the humus that is an important source of 
tree plant food is destroyed, thus starving the trees and slow- 
ing down their rate of growth; (3) the mulch covering the 
forest floor that absorbs and conserves the rainfall needed 
for tree growth is consumed. 

Fires burn the trunks of trees destroying some of the 
tissue needed in carrying plant food up from the soil. Decay 
enters these scars and penetrates to the heart of the trunk, 
causing hollow places and destroying the best lumber in the 
tree. 

The weakening of trees resulting from decreased supply 
of plant food and moisture and the decay that the fires are 
responsible for, cause trees to be more susceptible to insect 
and disease injury. This means destruction of wood or im- 
pairment of the quality of the lumber. 

The Georgia Forest Service is undertaking through vari- 
ous means to educate the public to an appreciation of the 
meaning of forest fires. It has its timber protective organi- 
sations through which federal aid is extended; it is cooperat- 
ing with 100 rural high schools in conducting demonstration 
forests that teach methods of fire control; it cooperates in 
putting on moving pictures that teach forest fire prevention 
to rural schools throughout the state; it has prepared and 
distributed forest fire posters; carries on campaigns through 
newspapers and with every opportunity representatives of 



the Georgia Forest Service talk to audiences and speak to in- 
dividuals about keeping fires out of the forests. It is a cam- 
paign that everyone is invited to join and urged to wage in 
Georgia. 



Leading Woods of Georgia and Their Uses 

Descriptions of leading woods of Georgia and state- 
ments of their main uses are given below. Other uses than 
those mentioned may exist and still others may be developed. 



Pines 

Loblolly (Pinus taeda.) Found most abundantly in 
upper coastal plain and lower Piedmont. In the market it is 
included in the class of "y e U° w pine." The grain is coarser 
than longleaf pine and the wood is lighter and softer. It is 
used for building materials, box shooks, barrel staves, basket 
veneer, pulpwood, lath, mine props, piling, crossties, tele- 
phone poles when creosoted; for excelsior and sometimes for 
turpentining though the yield is poor. 

Longleaf Pine (Pinus palustris.) It is prevalent in 
the coastal plain and scattered in comparatively small quan- 
tities in the Piedmont area. The wood is heavy, hard, strong, 
nearly all heart, and is quite durable. It is used for all kinds 
of building material and because of its strength it is used for 
long timbers in construction of buildings, bridges, col- 
umns, masts, spars, etc. It is also used as crossties, posts, 
mine prop, log cabins, staves, shingles and palings. Creosoted 
blocks of longleaf pine are used for paving. The dead leaves 
(pine straw) are employed for making baskets and fancy 
holders of various kinds. Its gum is used for naval stores — 
that is, turpentine, rosin, tar, etc. This is obtained not only 
by chipping off the bark and collecting gum, but by distilling 
stumps, foots and tree tops left after logging. A fibre residue 



of the distillation process is used for packing purposes and 
for making wall board. The pine needles or leaves are used 
for making baskets and mats and for charcoal production. 

Slash Pine (Pinus caribaea.) Slash pine is found in the 
coastal plain and predominates over the longleaf on low, 
moist lands. It grows more rapidly than longleaf for the 
first thirty years. The wood is heavy, hard, strong, tough 
and durable. It is highly resinous and is a heavy yielder of 
naval stores products. Its wood and leaves are adapted very 
generally to the same purpose ascribed to longleaf pine. 

Shortleaf Pine (Pinus echinata.) This variety pre' 
dominates in the mountainous section and is found quite 
generally in the Piedmont area. The wood is moderately 
hard and strong, its color yellowish to dark brown. It is 
manufactured into lumber, boxes, crates and other contain- 
ers. It is in demand for woodpulp, veneers, excelsior, cooper- 
age and mine props. 

Black Pine (Pinus serotina.) This is sometimes called 
pond pine and pocosin. It grows in low, swampy, sour 
lands of the coastal plain. While inferior to longleaf in 
quality of lumber it is generally accepted as fct y e ^ ow pine" 
by the trade. The wood is heavy, coarse-grained, orange to 
pale yellow in color with abundant sap wood. It can be used 
as other pines described for most types of construction. 

Other Conifers. A limited amount of white pine, 
hemlock, scrub and pitch pine is found in the mountainous 
part of the state. White pine is in ready demand for build- 
ing purposes. The other pines will probably find their great- 
est use in the production of wood pulp. 

Oaks 

White Oak (Quercus alba.) The white oak is com- 
mon to all parts of the state. Its wood is durable, tough, 
strong, elastic and straight grained, qualities that recommend 
it for many uses, such as beams, furniture, book cases, vehi- 
cles, tight cooperage, interior finish, baskets, splint bottomed 



chairs, crossties, fence posts, etc. Its acorns make good hog 
feed. The inner bark of young trees is distilled for medicinal 
purposes. 

Post Oak (Quercus stellata.) This tree is widely dis' 
tributed over the state. Its wood is light to dark brown, 
hard, close-grained, durable in contact with the soil. It is 
used for many of the purposes to which white oak is put, 
such as furniture, interior finish, beams, crossties, fence posts 
and flooring, but the lumber is not considered quite as good 
as white oak. It makes fairly good staves. 

Southern Red Oak (Quercus rubra.) This is also 
called Spanish oak, and grows widely over the state. The 
wood is hard, strong, coarse-grained, not durable. The wood 
is light red. It is used for rough furniture, general construc- 
tion, crossties, interior finishing and cooperage. Its bark is 
used for making tannin. 

Northern Red Oak (Quercus borealis) is scattered 
through the state, but is most common in the mountains. It 
is used for cooperage, interior finish, general construction, 
furniture, crossties, etc. 

Black Oak (Quercus velutina.) This tree is also called 
yellow oak and grows extensively over the state. Its wood is 
bright reddish-brown with a thin layer of paler sap wood. 
It is sold as 'red oak" and used for the same general pur- 
poses. The bark is used to produce a yellow dye and is also 
used for making tannic acid. 

Water Oak (Quercus nigra.) Water oak grows along 
streams, in bottom lands and along borders of swamps. The 
wood is light-brown, heavy, hard and strong. It is used for 
crossties, pilings and fuel, and is favored for planting as a 
shade tree. 

Other oaks belonging to the water oak class and simi- 
larly used are the laurel oak (quercus laurifolia) and willow 
oak (quercus phellos). 



Chestnut Oak {Suercus montana.) This tree is 
widely distributed in the mountainous section of the state, 
especially on rocky, gravelly slopes. Its wood is heavy, hard, 
strong and durable in contact with soil, ranking close to 
white oak. It is used for crossties, bridge timbers, fence posts 
and rough construction. Its bark is preferred to all other 
oaks for its tannic acid. 

Swamp Chestnut Oak (Quercus prinus.) Sometimes 
called "basket oak" because it is adapted to making baskets, 
and sometimes called "cow oak" because its leaves are eaten 
by cows. It is sparsely distributed. It makes excellent wood, 
with uses similar to white oak; in fact, is sold as white oak. 

Live Oak (Quercus virginiana.) This variety is abund- 
ant in the coastal plain. The wood is heavy, tough, hard, 
nearly white. It was formerly used extensively as "ship 
knees." It is used for mauls, rollers, meat blocks, wood pulp 
and veneer. The sweet kernel of its nut makes it palatable. 
Indians boiled and parched it and ate it as bread. 

Other Oaks. Turkey oak (Quercus catesbaei) is a 
common oak of the coastal plain dry ridges and hammocks. 
It is used to some extent as rough lumber and general con- 
struction. Scarlet oak (Quercus coccinea), sometimes called 
pin oak ,widely distributed but sparse, is sold as red oak and 
is also planted as shade trees. Black Jack oak (Quercus 
marilandica) is found in all parts of the state. Its only use at 
present is for fuel. 

Tulip (Poplar) 

Yellow Poplar (Liriodendron tulipifera.) This valu- 
able tree grows in all parts of the state, reaching its greatest 
growth in rich cove lands of the mountains. Its wood is 
light yellow or brown; light, soft and easily worked; put to 
a great variety of uses, such as building materials, exterior 
and interior, veneers, vehicle bodies, turnery, woodenware, 



furniture, imitation mahogany veneer, excelsior, boxes, 
crates, porch columns, shingles, baskets, woodpulp, cross' 
ties, etc. 

Cypress 

Cypress (Taxodium distichum) is found in the lower 
coastal plain in deep swamps and in low, moist lands along 
streams. The wood is light and soft but very durable. Its 
color varies from light sap wood to dark brown heartwood. 
The wide adaptability of this wood makes it economically 
very important. Its durability under exposure and contact 
with soil makes it very desirable for sash, doors, frames, 
blinds; for piles, crossties, tanks, telegraph poles, shingles, 
water pipes, silos, buckets, churns, freezers, boats, green' 

house frames, etc. 

i~ 

Gums 

Red Gum (Liquidambar styracijlua.) This tree is also 
known as "sweet gum.' It is widely distributed over the 
state and in recent years has become one of the valued woods. 
The heartwood is reddish brown and the sapwood of lighter 
color. The wood is close-grained, moderately hard, heavy. 
It lends itself to interior uses in the place of Circassian wal' 
nut, which with proper treatment, it very closely resembles 
and, by many, considered more beautiful. It also can be 
stained to resemble mahogany. It should be more generally 
used for furniture, desks, cabinets, doors, interior finishings 
of homes and store buildings; for gun stocks, boxes, floors, 
woodpulp, etc. 

Black Gum (Hyssa hiflora) is a different species of 
tree from red gum. It is also called sour gum and bee gum, 
and is found in great abundance in low, wet lands and 
swamps over the state. The wood is tough, cross-grained. 
It is used for crate and basket veneers, box shooks, rough 
floors, rollers, mallets, mauls, hubs, woodpulp, etc. A variety 

9 



of black gum (nyssa sylvatica) is common on dryer lands 
and is very similar in appearances and uses to black gum 
above described. In fact, it is not generally regarded as be- 
ing different from it. 

Tupelo (Nyssa aquatica, Ttyssa uniflora Wang), 
sometimes sold as bay poplar, is native to swamps. Formerly 
considered worthless as lumber, but with improved method 
of curing it has become useful in all lines in which yellow 
poplar is used. On account of its freedom from splintering 
it is desirable for flooring of warehouses and freight plat- 
forms. Its chief uses are for veneer for boxes, crates, etc. 
Cigar boxes and musical instruments are made of it. 

Chestnut 

Chestnut (Castanea dentata) is native to the moun- 
tain and Piedmont region. On account of the spread of 
chestnut blight against which no defense has been found, 
this tree is threatened with extinction. It is, therefore, im- 
portant to utilise it to the fullest extent before it is killed. 
The wood is soft, light, straight-grained and very durable in 
contact with the soil. It can be used for a large number of 
purposes, such as interior finish, sash, doors, frames, sheet- 
ing, crossties, telephone poles, posts and shingles. Both 
wood and bark are in demand by tanneries. 

Cedar 

Red Cedar (Junijperus virginiana) is found in all parts 
of the state The heart wood is quite red and the sapwood 
white, this contrast adding to its attractiveness. The wood 
is strong, soft, with straight grain. Its adaptability to lead 
pencils is unsurpassed. On account of its durability, cedar 
has been favored for telephone and telegraph poles and 
fence posts. Sawed into lumber it finds popularity in the 
production of clothes chests, for lining of closets, for interior 
finishings of rooms, etc. A valuable oil is made from the 
wood and green twigs. 

10 



White Cedar (Chamacy paris thyoides) is common to 
South Georgia swamp lands or k 'glades/ ' The wood is soft, 
close-grained, slightly aromatic. It is in demand for cooper' 
age, shingles, fence posts, boats, telephone and telegraph 
poles, etc. 

Walnut 

Black Walnut (Juglans nigra) is found growing on 
rich lowlands and fertile hillsides in various parts of the 
state. Its wood is hard, strong, heavy, close-grained and sus' 
ceptible of high polish. The color of the wood of old trees 
is a rich chocolate brown. The wood is highly valued for 
furniture, desks, cabinets, interior finishing, gun stocks, sew 
ing machines, musical instruments and airplane propellors. 
Black walnut lumber brings the highest price of any Georgia 
grown wood. The nuts are a source of revenue and the hulls 
of the nuts were formerly used for making a dye for home' 
spun cloth. 

White Walnut (Juglans cinera), sometimes called 
butternut. It is found only in the mountains where it is 
quite common. The wood is light brown, light, soft, coarse 
grained, not strong. It takes a high polish and is used for 
interior finishing and furniture. A yellow or orange dye is 
made from the hulls of the nut. 

Hickory 

White Hickory (Carya alba) — also known as white' 
heart hickory and mockernut hickory, has a wood very hard, 
heavy, strong, tough and pliable. The heartwood is light 
brown to reddish with rather wide margin of white sap' 
wood, not durable in contact with the soil. It is common to 
all well'drained soils throughout the State. Its wood is used 
for vehicles, tool handles, athletic goods, for smoking meats, 
etc. 

Scaly-Bark Hickory (Carya ovata) is found along 
streams and rich moist hillsides throughout the state. The 
wood is heavy, strong, hard, tough and flexible and is used 

11 



for tool handles, vehicles and many other ways where 
strength and flexibility of woods are desired. 

The wood of all hickories is used for very much the 
same purposes. Other hickories found widely over the state 
are: Pignut Hickory (Carya Glabra), found mainly in mid- 
dle Georgia, and Bitternut Hickory (Carya Minima), scat/ 
tered over the state, having reddish-brown wood somewhat 
inferior to other hickories. Less important commercially are 
Swamp Hickory (Carya Aquatica) and Pecan (Carya 
Pecan) . 

Ash 

White Ash (Fraxinus americana) is common to all 
parts of the state. The wood is white to brown in color and 
is highly prised because of its toughness and elasticity, and 
for this reason is used for handles for athletic goods such as 
rackets, bats, oars, and for vehicles, furniture, interior finish, 
etc. 

Water Ash (Fraxinus caroliniana) and Green Ash 
(Fraxinus pennsylvanianca lanceolata) appear over the state, 
but are not equal to white ash and are not abundant enough 
to be of much commercial importance. 

Cherry 

Wild Cherry (Prunus sprotina), also called Black 
Cherry, reaches greatest development in the mountainous 
portion of the state. The wood is reddish-brown, close- 
grained and hard and takes a beautiful finish. It is highly 
prized for interior finish, cabinet making, veneer, panels, 
etc. Next to walnut, it brings the highest market price of 
any wood in eastern United States. Its bark is used for 
medicinal purposes, especially in cough medicines. 

Beech 

Beech (Fagus grandifolia) grows throughout the state 
usually in association with hickories and oaks on rich moist 

12 



land, its greatest development being in mountain coves. The 
wood is hard, light red in color, strong, tough, but is not 
durable when exposed to weather or soil. It is used for 
flooring, tools, novelty wares, charcoal, crates, veneer, bob' 
bins, clothes pins, shoe lasts, boxes, handles, etc. 

Blue Beech (Carpinus caroliniana) , also called water 
beech, is found along streams throughout the state and is not 
abundant enough to be of much economic value. Its wood is 
used for tool handles, wooden cogs, mauls, wedges and levers. 

Hornbeam (Ostrya virginiana), also called Ironwood, 
is used in the same manner as beech. 



Locust 

Black Locust (Robinia pseudacacia) , also known as 
yellow locust, found throughout the northern half of the 
state. The wood is yellow, coarse-grained and durable in 
contact with soil. It is prised as crossties, fence posts, tele- 
phone poles and insulator pins. 

Honey Locust (Gleditsia triacanthos), well known for 
its long pods, is scattered throughout the state. The wood 
is reddish-brown, not as durable as black locust, but is used 
successfully for fence posts, crossties and hubs. The pods 
provide food for hogs. 

Magnolia 

Magnolia (Magnolia grandiflora) , a well-known ever- 
green, grows to large si2£ in moist soils of coastal plains. Its 
cream colored wood is moderately heavy and hard. It is 
coming into popularity for interior finishing, veneer, basket 
and crate manufacture and kitchen furniture. It is an out- 
standing evergreen tree of the South for ornamental planting 
and is grown for such purposes far north of its natural 
habitat, 



13 



Mountain Magnolia (Magnolia fraseri) grows in the 
mountainous portion of the state, but is not commercially 
important. It is used for lumber and pulp wood. 

Cucumber Tree (Magnolia acuminata) is also a moun- 
tain member of the magnolia family. It is used for the same 
purposes as poplar, its cousin. 

Basswood-Linden 

Basswood and Linden (Tilia) are close kin, and the 
trade uses the names interchangeably. Trees of this kind are 
common to the mountains. Their wood is light brown, 
tough, cross-grained and used for woodenware, boxes, crates, 
millwork, picture frames, moldings, piano keys, bread-boards, 
ironing boards, excelsior and woodpulp. Formerly their tough 
barks were used for making ropes. 

Birch 

River Birch (Betula nigra), also called Red Birch, is 
found along streams, ponds, in swamps and semi-swamp 
lands. The wood is close-grained and strong. It is used for 
woodenware, turnery, wagon hubs, hoops and handles. 

Black Birch (Betula lenta) is also known as Sweet 
Birch and Cherry Birch. It occurs only in hills and moun- 
tains. The wood is heavy, strong, hard and compact. Its 
dark-brown color has given it a local name of "mountain ma- 
hogany." It is used as a substitute for mahogany in making 
furniture, interior finishing, flooring, etc. 

Hemlock 

Hemlock (Tsuga canadensis) is found in the moun- 
tains of Georgia. The wood is light, soft, brittle and splinters 
readily. It is used for coarse lumber and woodpulp. The 
bark is valued for its tannin. 

Carolina Hemlock (Tsuga caroliniana) is also found 
in the mountains, and its wood and bark are used as de- 
scribed for Tsuga canadensis. 

14 



Sycamore 

Sycamore (Platanus occidentalis) , also called Button' 
wood, grows throughout the state along streams and bottom 
lands. The wood is hard and moderately strong. Its chief 
uses are for butchers' blocks, tobacco boxes, interior finish, 
furniture and veneer. 

Sassafras 

Sassafras (Sassafras officinale) grows in all parts of 
the state on dry soils, but not in the higher mountains. Its 
wood is soft and brittle, but is durable in contact with the 
soil. It is used for posts, rails, cooperage, etc. The bark and 
roots are used to produce sassafras tea; also oil of sassafras 
employed by flavoring. 

Willow 

Black Willow (Salix nigra) is common along streams, 
ponds, and in moist lands throughout Georgia. Its wood is 
soft, light, but not strong. It is employed in making artificial 
limbs, high-grade charcoal, excelsior, boxes and crates. The 
twigs are plaited to protect river banks from erosion. Its 
bark contains salicylic acid which is used for medicinal pup 
poses. 

Cottonwood (Pojpulus deltoides), sometimes referred 
to as Carolina poplar, is scattered widely over the state, 
nowhere abundant. The wood is soft, light' weight, warps, 
but finds several uses such as substitutes for yellow poplar 
and linden, and converted into wood pulp makes high'grade 
paper. 

Swamp Cottonwood (Populus heterophylla), Silver- 
bell, is common along borders of rivers and swamps in the 
coastal plain region. The wood is light and soft. It is used 
for veneer, wood pulp and excelsior. 

Maple 

Red Maple (Acer ruhrum) is known also as Swamp 
Maple, and is widely distributed through the state. Its wood 

15 



is sold as "soft maple" and is used in the manufacture of 
furniture, flooring, woodenware, turnery and paper pulp. 

Silver Maple (Acer saccharinum) is found on moist 
lands and along streams. The wood is soft, smooth and 
rather brittle and is used for the same purposes as red maple. 

Persimmon-Dogwood-Holly 

Persimmon (Diosjpyros virginiana) is found through- 
out the state. The wood is hard, dense, strong. The color of 
the heartwood is brown to black, the wide sap wood, white or 
yellowish. The wood is used for the manufacture of shuttles, 
bobbins, etc., in connection with knitting mills. The fruit 
is high in sugar content and valuable as food for man, game, 
hogs and cattle. 

Dogwood (Cornus florida) is in great demand by cot- 
ton mills for the same purposes as persimmon. It is used for 
turnery, handles, forms, novelties, etc. 

Holly (Ilex opaca) , while regarded as having its great- 
est value as a source of holiday greens, it is sometimes cut and 
used for cabinet work, wood-turning, etc. 



16 



Directories 

Wood Manufacturers, Saw Mill Operators 
and Lumber Dealers of Georgia 

(In making up the following directories all available sources of 
information have been consulted, such as associations membership and 
other trade directories. It is possible that in spite of all our efforts 
some names may have been omitted. Any information that will help 
make the directories more complete will be welcomed for use in 
future issues of this bulletin.) 



CHIEF ARTICLES MANUFACTURED FROM WOOD IN 
GEORGIA AND NAMES OF LEADING PRODUCERS 



AGRICULTURAL IMPLEMENTS: 
Athens Foundry ft Machine Works, 

Athens 
Atlanta Plow Co., Atlanta 
Benton Manufacturing Co., Monticello 
Camp, E. N & Son, Moreland 
Gantt Manufacturing: Co., Macon 
Lilliston Implement Co., Albany 
Southern Plow Co., Columbus 
Tom Huston Mfg. Co., Columbus 
Towers & Sullivan. Rome 

AUTO BODIES: 
Columbus Fender & Body Works, 

Columbus 
Savannah River Lbr. Co., Savannah 
Yancey Brothers, Atlanta 

BASKETS t 
Atlanta Woodenware Co., Atlanta 
Georgia Basket & Lbr. Co., Brunswick 
Georgia Crate & Basket Co., Thomasville 
Georgia Veneer & Package Co., 

Brunswick 
Menlo Fruit Package Co., Menlo 
Peerless Basket Co., Cuthbert 
Pierpont Mfg. Co., Savannah 

BEE HIVES: 

Wilder, J. J., Way cross 

BLOCKS: 
Southern Wood Preserving Co., Atlanta 

BOBBINS AND SHUTTLES: 
Jordan Mfg. Co., Monticello 
Norris Bros., Macon 



BOXES: 
Acworth Building Supply Co., Acworth 
Champion Box Co., Thomasville 
Cohutta Lumber Co., Chatsworth 
Cunningham- Wayne Box & Crate Co., 

Savannah 
Davis-Corum Box & Lumber Co., Macon 
Dawson Variety Works, Dawson 
Dudley Sash, Door & Lbr. Co., Columbus 
Elberta Crate Co., Bainbridge 
Georgia Crate & Basket Co., Thomasville 
Georgia Veneer & Package Co., Brunswick 
Glover Casket Co., Rome 
Griffin Box Co., Griffin 
Hightower Box & Tank Co., Atlanta 
Jeffreys & McElrath Mfg. Co., Macon 
Maxwell Brothers, Macon 
Menlo Fruit Package Co., Menlo 
Moultrie Box & Crate Co., Moultrie 
Mutual Mfg. Co., Savannah 
O'Neill Lumber & Box Mfg. Co., Rome 
Pierpont Mfg. Co., Savannah 
Reynolds Brothers Lbr. Co., Albany 
Southern Novelty Works, Demorest 
Union Box Mfg. Co., Atlanta 

CAR BUILDERS: 
Georgia Car & Locomotive Co., Atlanta 

CARRIAGES: 
Griffin Buggy Co., Griffin 
Jones, J .W, Cartersville 
Norman Buggy Co., Griffin 
Smith, Jackson G. & Co., Barnesville 

CASKETS : 
Atlanta Casket Co., Atlanta 
Capitol City Casket Co., Atlanta 



17 



CASKETS— Continued 
Glover Casket Co., Rome 
Columbus Casket Co., Columbus 
Juniper Casket Co., Juniper 
Junction City Mfg. Co., Junction City 
Maddox, B. R., Jesup 
Mutual Mfg. Co., Savannah 
McNatt Coffin & Casket Co., Vidalia 
National Casket Co., Atlanta 
Southland Casket Co., Atlanta 
Warm Springs Planing: Mills, Warm 
Springs 

CHARCOAL: 
Atlantic Turpentine & Pine Tar Co., 

Savannah 
Valdosta Tar & Turpentine Co., Valdosta 

COOPERAGE 
Armuchee Cooperage Co., Rome 
Cannon, The Co., Cairo 
Colquitt County Cooperage Co., Moultrie 
Etowah Cooperage Co., Rome 
Georgia Cooperage Co., Tallapoosa 
Georgia Stave Co., Valdosta 
Macon Cooperage Co., Macon 
McElvey, O. A. & J. O., Pelham 
Oak City Cooperage Co., Bainbridge 
Reinschmidt Stave Co., Quitman 
Southern Cotton Oil Co., Savannah 
Southern Heading & Mfg. Co., Valdosta 
Standard Stave Co., Cairo 
Woolvin, R B., Stave Co., Dublin 

COTTON GIN MACHINERY: 

Cen-Tennial Cotton Gin Co., Columbus 
Continental Cotton Gin Co., Columbus 
Lummus Cotton Gin Co., Columbus 
Massey Gin & Machine Works, Macon 
Murray Company, Atlanta 
Sea Island Cotton Gin Co., Vidalia 

CRATES: 

Champion Box Co., Thomasville 
Cunningham-Wayne Box & Crate Co., 

Savannah 
Elberta Crate Co., Bainbridge 
Enterprise Mfg. Co., Waycross 
Georgia Crate & Basket Co., Thomasville 
Georgia Veneer & Package Co., Brunswick 
Fort Valley Crate & Lbr. Co., Fort Valley 
Moultrie Box & Crate Co., Moultrie 
Pierpont Mfg. Co., Savannah 
Southern Crate & Veneer Co., Macon 
Wilder Lumber Co., Tifton 
Wadley Veneer & Basket Co., Wadley 
Union Box Mfg. Co., Atlanta 

CROSS TIES (R. R. Material) : 
Atlantic Tie & Timber Co., Savannah 
Baxley Planing Mill, Baxley 
Bladen Tie & Lumber Co., Brunswick 
Chauncy, V. N., Jesup 
Dicky, Lon, Fitzgerald 
Houston Lbr. Co., Thomasville 
Joyce-Watkins Co., Brunswick 
Mutual Timber Co., Brunswick 



Seals, C. N., Kingsland 

Southern Tie & Timber Co., Atlanta 

Stubbs & Stubbs, Douglas 

Superior Pine Products Co., Fargo 

Southern Wood Preserving Co., Atlanta 

Werden-Empire Lbr. Co., Albany 

DIMENSION STOCK: 
Cleveland-Oconee Lbr. Co., Atlanta 
Batson-Cook Co., West Point 
Case-Fowler Lbr. Co., Macon 
Green Bros., Waynesboro 
Harrison, T. I., Sandersville 
Massee & Felton Lbr. Co., Macon 
Middle Ga. Lbr. Co., Wadley 
Moore Lumber Co., DeSoto 
Stovall, W. I., Sautee 
Savannah River Lbr. Co., Savannah 
West, W. J., Lbr. Co., Rising Fawn 

EXCELSIOR : 
Augusta Bedding Co., Augusta 
DuPre Mfg. Co., Atlanta 
Georgia Cushion & Wrapper Co., 

Woodland 
Wadley Veneer & Basket Co., Wadley 

FIXTURES: 
Commercial Mfg. Co., Atlanta 
Cooper Lbr. Co., Columbus 
Krueger Mfg. Co., Atlanta 
Macon Cabinet Works, Macon 
Muecke & Sons Co., Macon 
National Show Case Co., Columbus 
Womack, J. P., & Sons, Atlanta 

FLOORING: 
Atlanta Oak Flooring Co., Atlanta 
Karwisch, J. M., Wagon Works, Atlanta 
Kriegshaber, V. H., & Son, Atlanta 
Southern Wood Preserving Co., Atlanta 

FURNITURE: 
Arrimo Mfg. Co., Augusta 
Austell Cabinet Co., Austell 
Atlanta Table Co., Atlanta 
Atlas Furniture Mfg. Co., Atlanta 
Art Furniture Mfg. Co., Macon 
Blanchard, Carter & Shebane, Crawford 
Bellwood Novelty Works, Atlanta 
Brumby Chair Co., Marietta 
Bond & Waite Mfg. Co., Toccoa 
Capitol City Chair Co., Atlanta 
Chattahoochee Furniture Co., Flowery 

Branch 
Coastal Cabinet Works, Brunswick 
Carmichael Furniture Co., Atlanta 
Carter Show Case Co., Atlanta 
Cleveland-Oconee Lbr. Co., Atlanta 
Currahee Furniture Co., Toccoa 
Diana Furniture Co., Toccoa 
Duane Chair Co., Dalton 
Estes Wollcott Co., Rex 
Floyd Brothers, Atlanta 
Fox Mfg. Co., Atlanta 
Geiger, W, T. P., Vidalia 
Georgia Chair Co., Gainesville 
Ginn Mfg. Co., Carnesville 
Gholstin Spring & Mattress Co., Atlanta 
Ideal Furniture Co., Athens 



l? 



FURNITURE— Continued 
Knott & Carmichael, Atlanta 
Krueger Mfg. Co., Atlanta 
Macon Cabinet Works, Macon 
Macon Lbr. & Mfg. Co., Macon 
Morrow-Cook Furniture Co., Albany 
Muecke & Sons Co., Macon 
Rome Cabinet Co., Rome 
Rome Chair Co., Rome 
Rome Furniture Co., Rome 
Smith, Jackson G. & Co., Barnesville 
Southern Desk & Table Co., Atlanta 
Southern Novelty Works, Demorest 
Spratt Chair Co., Atlanta 
Stambaugh, C. W., Demorest 
Star Furniture Co., Athens 
Toccoa Furniture Co., Toccoa 
Trogdon Furniture Co., Toccoa 
Union City Cabinet Works, Union City 
Washington Mfg. Co., Washington 
Winder Furniture Co., Winder 
Womack, J. P. & Sons, Atlanta 

HANDLES: 

Atlanta Woodenware Co., Atlanta 
Fowler Wainwright Hardware Co., Macon 
Hanna Mfg. Co., Athens 
Savannah Handle Co., Savannah 
Standard Tool & Handle Co., Macon 
Tifton Handle Mfg. Co., Tifton 

LATH: 

Bar field Lbr. Co., Vienna 
Carolina Portland Cement Co., Atlanta 
Daugherty McKey & Co., Valdosta 
East Point Lbr. Co., East Point 
Farrar Lbr. Co., Bainbridge 
Kreigshaber, V. H. & Son, Atlanta 
Pineora Mfg. Co., Pineora 
Reynolds Bros. Lbr. Co., Albany 
Williams, Homer, Thomasville 
Willingham-Tift Lbr. Co., Atlanta 
Woodward Lbr. Co., Augusta 
Zuber, John W., Atlanta 

LOG CARTS: 
Williams Mfg. Co., Macon 

PLYWOOD : 
Clark, R. C, Veneer Co., Atlanta 
Southern Hardwood Lbr. Co., Waynesboro 

PILES, POLES, POSTS: 
Bacon, A. S. & Sons, Savannah 
Chauncy, V. N., Jesup 
Georgia Creosoting Co., Brunswick 
Savannah Creosoting Co., Savannah 
Seals, C. N., Kingsland 
Southern Wood Preserving Co., Atlanta 
Superior Pine Products Co., Fargo 

REFRIGERATORS: 
Warren, The Co., Atlanta 
Wright, The Co., Atlanta 

SADDLE TREES: 
Flor, Edward Co., Demorest 

SASH, DOORS, BLINDS, MILL- 
WORK: 
American Box & Lbr. Co., Macon 
Americus Construction Co., Americus 
Augusta Lbr. Co., Augusta 



Bacon, A. S. & Sons, Savannah 

Baxley Planing Mill, Baxley 

Branch, Mrs. F. T., Quitman 

Bright-Brooks Lbr. Co., Savannah 

Bond & Waite Mfg. Co., Toccoa 

Butler, John G., Savannah 

Carter Lbr. & Mfg. Co., Columbus 

Central Sash & Door Co., Macon 

Cole, R. D. Mfg. Co., Newnan 

Cooper Lbr. Co., Columbus 

Cordele Sash, Door & Lbr. Co., Cordele 

Crisp County Lbr. Co., Cordele 

Carter Brothers, Rochelle 

Case- Fowler Lbr. Co., Macon 

Dawson Variety Works, Dawson 

DeKalb Supply Co., Decatur 

Campbell's Variety Works, Rockmart 

Disbro Lbr. Co., Atlanta 

Douglas Novelty Co., Douglas 

Dublin Sash & Door Co., Dublin 

Dudley Sash, Door & Lbr. Co., Columbus 

East Point Lbr. Co., East Point 

Farrar Lbr. Co., Dalton 

Gresham Mfg. Co., Griffin 

Harvey, W. T. Lbr. Co., Columbus 

Jakin Novelty Works, Jakin 

Lang's Variety Works, Sandersville 

Lanier, J. W., Valdosta 

LaGrange Lbr. & Supply Co., LaGrange 

Marbut-Williams Lbr. Co., Atlanta 

Marshall Mfg. Co., Rome 

Meigs Variety Works, Meigs 

Moss, R. L. Mfg. Co., Athens 

New, D. F., Carrollton 

O'Neill Box & Lbr. Co., Rome 

Pattillo Lbr. Co., Atlanta 

Perkins Mfg. Co., Atlanta 

Phoenix Planing Mill Co., Atlanta 

Randall Bros., Atlanta 

Shore, F. M. & Co., Quitman 

Thomasville Variety Works, Thomasville 

Valdosta Builders Supply, Valdosta 

Washington Mfg. Co., Washington 

Willingham Sash & Door Co., Macon 

Willingham-Tift Lbr. Co., Atlanta 

Woodward Lbr. Co., Augusta 

W. S. Askew Co., Newnan 

Williams, Homer, Thomasville 

SHINGLES: 

Archer, J. M., Sparta 
Bacon, A. S. & Sons, Savannah 
Baker & Co., Valdosta 
Barfield Lbr. Co., Vienna 
Chauncy, V. N., Jesup 
Dougherty, McKey & Co., Valdosta 
Downer Lbr. Co., Valdosta 
Daniel, J. W., Franklin 
East Point Lbr. Co., East Point 
Farrar Lbr. Co., Bainbridge 
Franklin, H. M. & Co., Tennille 
Harrell, N. E., Pearson 
Mclntyre, Arch, Ousley 
Mason Lbr. Co., Ochlochnee 
Owens, A. J., Canon 
Pierce, W. E., Edison 
Pineora Mfg. Co., Pineora 
Shiner, J. B., Poulan 
Sumner, E. J., Wrightsville 
Superior Pine Products, Fargo 
Warnock, D. F., Tarrytown 



19 



SHINGLES— Continued 
Wilder Lbr. Co., Tifton 
Williams, Homer, Thomasville 
Willingham-Tift Lbr. Co., Atlanta 
Woodward Lbr. Co., Augusta 
Zuber, Jno. W., Atlanta 

SHOOKS: 

Elberta Boy Co., Bainbridge 

HiR-h lower Box & Tank Co., Atlanta 

Jeffreys & MrEIrath Mfg. Co., Macon 

O'Neill Lbr. & Box Mfg. Co., Rome 

Pierpont Mfg. Co., Savannah 

Union Box Mfg. Co., Atlanta 

TANKS: 
Hightower Box & Tank Co., Atlanta 
Quitman Cooperage Co., Quitman 

TRUCKS, TRUCK BODIES: 
Columbus Truck & Supply Mfg. Co., 

Columbus 
Fairbanks Co., Rome 
Georgia Car & Locomotive Co., Atlanta 
Miller, A. C. & Co., Atlanta 
Williams Mfg. Co., Macon 
Yancey Brothers, Atlanta 



VENEER: 

Augusta Veneer Co., Augusta 
Brown, Robt. A., Raymond 
Clark Veneer Co., R. C, Atlanta 
Crown Mountain Veneer Co., Dahlonega 
Dublin Veneer & Package Co., Brunswick 
Georgia Veneer & Package Co., Brunswick 
Glyck Veneer & Lbr. Co., Macon 
Houston Mfg. Co., Perry 
Lovelace-Brown Lbr. Co., Thomson 
Midville Veneer Co., Midville 
Reynolds Bros. Lbr. Co., Albany 
Pierpont Mfg. Co., Savannah 
Southern Crate & Veneer Co., Macon 
Wadley Veneer & Basket Co., Wadley 
Peerless Basket Co., Cuthbert 

WAGONS: 
Hancock Wagon Co., Culverton 
Karwisch, J. M., Wagon Works, Atlanta 
Sanders, John D., Waynesboro 
Tarwood Mfg. & Supply Co., Dublin 
White Hickory Wagon Mfg. Co., East 

Point 
Williams Mfg. Co., Macon 

WOODENWARE: 

Atlanta Woodenware Co., Atlanta 



SAW MILL OPERATORS OF GEORGIA 



ACWORTH, Cobb County 
Mills Lbr. Co. of Ga., Inc. 

ADEL, Cook County 
Adel Mfg. Co. 

AILEY, Montgomery County 
Thompson, H. V. & Bros. 

ALAMO, Wheeler County 
Adams, J. W. 
Clark, W. M. & Co. 

ALBANY, Dougherty County 
Allen Brothers Lbr. Co. 
General Lbr. Co. 

Home Builders Lbr. & Supply Co. 
Clancy Lbr. Co. 
Reynolds Bros. Lbr. Co. 

ALSTON, Montgomery County 
Daniel, J. Fred & Sons 
McArthur, J. J. 
Sharpe, J. S. 

AMERICUS, Sumter County 
Lovelace, T. B., Lbr. Co. 

AMSTERDAM, Decatur County 
Gragg Lbr. Co. 

ARGYLE, Clinch County 
Garrant Lbr. Co. 



ASHBURN, Turner County 
Carter, C. W. 
Thrasher, C. E. 

ATHENS, Clarke County 
Athens Saw & Planing Mill 

ATLANTA, Fulton County 
Cleveland-Oconee Lbr. Co. 

AUGUSTA, Richmond County 
Augusta Hardwood Co. 
Georgia Hardwood Lbr. Co. 
Richmond Lbr. Co. 
Woodward Lbr. Co. 

BAINBRIDGE, Decatur County 
Battle & Hodges 
Carr, A. S. Co. 

BANNING, Carroll County 
Hanson, J. R. 

BARNESVILLE, Lamar County 
Barnesville Planing Mill Co. 
Lavender & Brown 
Milner Lbr. Co. 

BARTOW, Jefferson County 
Brown, T. S. 
Hall, J. M. 
Salter & Evans 



20 



BAXLEY, Appling County 
Baxley Planing Mill 
Miles, D. P. 
Sellers, E. W. 
Williams, N. F. 

BLACKSHEAR, Pierce County 
Johnson, A. M. 
Woodall, C. C. Lbr. Co. 

BLAKELY, Early County 
Bailey, J. F. & Son 
Hall, W. A. Lbr. Co. 
Hunt, Washington & Hunt 
Stuckey, Chas. 

BLUFFTON, Clay County 
Rambo, M. 

BOSTON, Thomas County 
Sherrod, J. H. & Sons 

BROOKLET, Bulloch County 
Altman, W. R. Lumber Co. 
Howard, J. R. 
Shearwood Lbr. Co. 

BROOKLYN, Stewart County 
Bell-Tate Lbr. Co. 

BROOKS, Fayette County 
Cooper Bros. 
Lunsford, J. A. 

BROXTON, Coffee County 
Sapp, J. L. 

BRUNSWICK, Glynn County 
Brunswick Timber Co. 
Haddock, Tomlinson Co. 
Harrington, W. D. 

BUCHANAN, Haralson County 
Davis, W. E. & Son 

BUENA VISTA, Marion County 
Alexander & Burgin Lbr. Co. 

BUTLER, Taylor County 
Payne, W. A. 

BYRON, Peach County 
Cline, G. P. 

CAIRO, Grady County 
McColIom, P. J. 
Thomas-Robinson Lbr. Co. 

CALHOUN, Gordon County 
Barton, H. C. 
Calhoun Lbr. Co. 
David, A. B. 
Strain, J. A. 

CAIHLLA, Mitchell County 
Goulden, B. H. 
Manry, B. F. 



CANON, Franklin County 
Owens, A. J. 

CARNESVILLE, Franklin County 
Ginn Mfg. Co. 

CARTERSVILLE, Bartow County 
Shaw, L. F. & Sons Co. 
Smith Lbr. Co. 

CATAULA, Harris County 
Alexander Bros. Lbr. Co. 

CHARLES, Stewart County 
Alexander & Bland Lbr. Co. 

CHATSWORTH, Murray County 
Cohutta Lumber Co. 
Empire Talc & Lbr. Co. 

CHIPLEY, Harris County 
Chambers, J. M. 
Champion, F. L. 
Floyd, L. E. 
Williams, John W. 

CLARKESVILLE, Habersham County 
Church, Geo. 

CLAYTON, Rabun County 
Bleckley, James E. 
Mitchell, L. T. 
Mozely, John 

COLUMBUS, Muscogee County 
H. Dixon Smith, Inc. 

COGDELL, Clinch County 
Timber Products Co. 

COLQUITT, Miller County 
Wilkins, P. E. 

CONCORD, Pike County 
Oxford, H. E. 

CORDELE, Crisp County 
Cordele Sash, Door & Lbr. Co. 

COUNCIL, Clinch County 
Council Lbr. Co. 

COVINGTON, Newton County 
Campbell Lbr. Co. 

CRAWFORDVILLE, Taliaferro County 
Flynt-Golucke Lbr. Co. 

CUSSETA, Chattahoochee County 
Burgin Lbr. Co. 

CUTHBERT, Randolph County 
King Lbr. Co. 
Surles, R. E. 

DACULA, Gwinnett County 
Pharr, G. F. 



21 



DAHLONEGA, Lumpkin County 
Hightower, W. J. & Son 
Jarrard, J. C. & Bro. 

DALLAS, Paulding County 
Cochran, John L. Lbr. Co. 
Phillips, John 
Willis, D. F. 

DALTON, Whitfield County 
Brooker Lumber Co. 
Strain, E. E. 

DAMASCUS, Early County 
Rose-Mary Lbr. Co. 

DANIELSVILLE, Madison County 
Barrett, E. B. 
Rogers, B. F. 

DANVILLE, Twiggs County 
Danville Lbr. Co. 

DARIEN, Mcintosh County 
Altamaha Lbr. Co. 

DAVISBORO, Washington County 
Warthen, W. B. 

DAWSON, Terrell County 
Rowland, D. H. Lbr. Mills 
Shields & Geise Lbr. Co. 

DECATUR, DeKalb County 
Hierston, W. T. 
Ozmer, J. H. 

DESOTO, Sumter County 
Moore Lbr. Co. 

DEVEREAUX, Hancock County 
Grooms, M. M. Lbr. Co. 

DOLES, Worth County 
Champion, J. C. 

DOUGLAS, Coffee County 
Pat Darby Lbr. Co., Inc. 

DUBLIN, Laurens County 
Dublin Sash & Door Co. 
Gettys, J. M. Lbr. Co. 

EASTMAN, Dodge County 
Dodge County Lbr. Co. 

EATONTON, Putnam County 
Carpenter Lbr. Co. 

EDISON, Calhoun County 
Pierce, W. E. 
Turman Lbr. Co. 

EGYPT, Effingham County 
Rountree, W. P. 
Standard Lbr. Co. 



ELLAVILLE, Schley County 
Alexander, A. C. Lbr. Co. 
Drew, J. A. 
Hart, H. A. 
Tidd Bros. 
Smith & Wall 

ELLERSLIE, Harris County 
Alexander Bros. Lbr. Co. 

ELLIJAY, Gilmer County 
Henson Bros. & Barnes 
Shippen Hardwood Lbr. Co. 

ETON, Murray County 
Lefurgey, J. J. 

FACEVILLE, Decatur County 
Hancock Lbr. Co. 

FAIRMOUNT, Gordon County 
Fairmount Lbr. Co. 
Lowe, J. I. 

FARGO, Clinch County 
Superior Pine Products Co. 

FAYETTEVILLE, Fayette County 
Blalock Lbr. Co. 
Cox, W. F. 
Graves, Ernest 
Redwine Bros. 

FOLKSTON, Charlton County 
Gowen, A. G. 
Johnson, J. H. 

FORSYTH, Monroe County 
Hardin Lbr. Co. 

FORTSON, Muscogee County 
Fortson Lbr. Co. 
Franklin & Carey Lbr. Co. 

FRANKLIN, Heard County 
Daniel, J. W. 
Johnson & Hammond 
Norwood, J. E. 
Spradling, J. W. & Sons 

GAINESVILLE, Hall County 
Hammond, V. L. 
North Georgia Lbr. Co. 

GARDNERS, Washington County 
Cleveland-Oconee Lbr. Co. 

GIBSON, Glascock County 
Bowden-Hooks Lbr. Co. 

GIRARD, Burke County 
Mobley Bros. 

GLENNVILLE, Tattnall County 
Burns, T. F. 
Phillips, L. & Bros. 
Tootle, G. W. 



22 



KITE, Johnson County 
Meeks. W. B. 

LAFAYETTE, Walker County 
Clements & Quillian 
Ponder, J. R. 
Rea, J. H. B. 

LAGRANGE, Troup County 
Askew, W. S. Co. 

LAKE PARK, Lowndes County 
Ivers, C. H. & Son 
Watts & Co. 

LAWRENCEVILLE, Gwinnett County 
Jackson, C. M. 
Jackson, C. P. 

LEARY, Colhoun County 
Tyson & Stubbs 

LILLY, Dooly County 
Cox, J. E. 
McCormick, D. A. 

LINCOLNTON, Lincoln County 
Bunch & Harnesberger 
Lincoln Lbr. Co. 
Wilkinson, J. G. 

LIZELLA, Bibb County 
Carswell, M. C. 
Marshall, C. E. 
Marshall, W. J. 
Van Valkenburg, A. B. 
Whittle & Fackler 

LITHONIA, DeKalb County 
Johnson, J. C.'s Sons 

LOCO, Lincoln County 
Taylor, Clyde H. 

LOGANVILLE, Walton County 
Cooper, M. E. 

LOUISVILLE, Jefferson County 
Jones, S. E. 
Kelly, T. B. Lbr. Co. 

LOVEJOY STATION, Clayton County 
Dickson, J. S. 

LUDOWICI, Long County 
Bladen Tie & Lbr. Co. 
Jones, C. D. 

LUMBER CITY, Telfair County 
Rush, J. H. 

LUMPKIN, Stewart County 
Alexander & Bland Lbr. Co. 
Lawson, W. R. & Bro. 



GLENWOOD, Wheeler County 
Browning, J. M. 
Pearson Hardwood Flooring Co. 
Rivers & Jones 

GRAHAM, Appling County 
Ham, W. B. 

GRANTVILLE, Coweta Cbnnty 
Grantville Oil Mill 

GROVETOWN, Columbia County 
Dorn, R. B. 

HAMILTON, Harris County 
Pine Mountain Lbr. Co. 

HAPEVILLE, Fulton County 
Evans-Inman Lbr. Co. 

HARLEM, Columbia County 
Harlem Mfg. Co. 

HARTWELL, Hart County 
Cobb, J. A., Saw Mill Co. 

HATCHER, Quitman County 
Bland, D. G. Lbr. Co. 

HAWKINSVILLE, Pulaski County 
Grand Bay Lbr. Co. 
Hawkinsville Lbr. & Mfg. Co. 
Lick Creek Lbr. Co. 
Warren & DuPre 

HELEN, White County 
Morse Bros. Lbr. Co. 

HILLSBORO, Jasper County 
White Lbr. Co. 

HOBOKEN, Brantley County 
Newton & Jones 

JACKSONVILLE, Telfair County 
Williams, M. & C. W. 

JERSEY, Walton County 
Harris, J. T. 
Wiley, B. A. 

JESUP, Wayne County 
Chauncy, V. N. 
Garbutt Lbr. Co. 

JONESBORO, Clayton County 
Berry Bros. 

JULIA, Stewart County 
Union Lbr. Co. 

JUNCTION CITY, Talbot County 
Callier, N. V. 

JUNIPER, Marion County 
Rogers, A. N. 



23 



LUXOMNI, Gwinnett County 
Hannah, A. S. 
Pearson, J. H. 

McINTYRE, Wilkinson County 
Hall, J. M. Lbr. Co. 

McRAE, Telfair County 
Krumrine, J. H. C. 

MACON, Bibb County 
Case-Fowler Lbr. Co. 
Chambers Lbr. Co. 
Davis-Richardson Lbr. Co. 
Georgia Hardwood Co. 
James & Kingman Lbr. Co. 
Massee & Felton Lbr. Co. 
Richardson Lbr. Co. 
Wainwright- Young Lbr. Co. 

MADISON, Morgan County 
Atkinson, W. W. 
Mallory, T. A. 
Mason Lbr. Co. 

MANASSAS, Tattnall County 
Holland, John L. 

MARSHALL VILLE, Macon County 
Goodwin, S. B. 

MATTHEWS, Jefferson County 
Gay, W. S. 
Pennington, A. F. 

MAYSVILLE, Banks County 
Bacon Milling Co. 

METASVILLE, Wilkes County 
Lovelace, T. B. Lbr. Co. 

METTER, Candler County 
Brannen, I. A. & J. L. 

MIDVILLE, Burke County 
Fry, L. B. Lbr. Co. 
Higdon Lbr. Co. 
Wray-Joyner Co. 

MILLEDGEVILLE, Baldwin County 
Bland Lbr. Co. 
Central Georgia Lbr. Co. 
Crooms, M. M. 

MILLEN, Jenkins County 
Aaron, T. W. 
Millen Lbr. Co. 
Turner Lbr. Co. 

MILNER, Lamar County 
Chappel, A. H. 

MONROE, Walton County 
Monroe Lbr. Co. 

MONTICELLO, Jasper County 
Walker, J. N. 



MORVEN, Brooks County 
Elliott Lumber Co. 

MOULTRIE, Colquitt County 
Ladson Lbr. Co. 
Morris Brothers 

MT. VERNON, Montgomery County 
Johnson, W. A. 

NEWNAN, Coweta County 
R. D. Cole Mfg. Co. 

NORCROSS, Gwinnett County 
Flowers, W. D. 
Gastley, C. E. 
Green, J. C. 
Litsch, W. R. 

OAKFIELD, Worth County 
Nation, J. A. 

OCHLOCHNEE, Thomas County 
Mason Lumber Co. 

OCILLA, Irwin County 
Willis Lbr. Co. 

OCONEE, Washington County 
Ennes, E. N. 
Hodges, C. M. & Sons 

ODESSADALE, Meriwether County 
Glanton, W. A. 

ODUM, Wayne County 
Brentwood Lbr. Co. 
Thompson Bros. 
Warren, R. E. 

OFFERMAN, Pierce County 
Thomas, R. J. 

OGEECHEE, Screven County 
Fetty, I. H. 

OGLETHORPE, Macon County 
Cobb Lbr. Co. 
Flint Lbr. Co. 

OLIVER, Screven County 
Barber, W. W. 
Colson, J. L. & Son 

OXFORD, Newton County 
Dial, C. B. 

PELHAM, Mitchell County 
Whaley, A. 

PEMBROKE, Bryan County 
Bowen, L. S. 
Parrish, W. W. 

PINEORA, Effingham County 
Pineora Mfg. Co. 



24 



POWDER SPRINGS. Cobb County 
Boynton, R. A. 
Florence, W. L. 
Smith, J. F. 

PRESTON, Webster County 
Cagle, W. W. 
Montgomery, G. A. 
Patterson & Davis 
Rees, J. O. & Sons 
Sappington & Averett 

QUITMAN, Brooks County 
Shores, F. M. & Co. 
South Georgia Lbr. Co. 

RANGER, Gordon County 
Earnest, G. C. 

RESACA, Gordon County 
Resaca Lbr. Co. 

REYNOLDS, Taylor County 
Saunders & Sealey 

RICHLAND, Stewart County 
Alexander & Bland 
Bell Lbr. Co. 
Dudley Lbr. Co. 

RINGGOLD, Catoosa County 
Catoosa Lbr. Co. 
Clark, J. H. 
Combs, C. M. 
Creswell, W. O. 
Embesson, T. S. 
Hulsey & Combs 
Vosburg, C. C. 

ROBERTA, Crawford County 
Starnes, W. C. 

ROCKMART, Polk County 
Davenport Bros. 
Ezell, J. C. 

ROSWELL, Gobb County 
Maxwell, J. T. 

ST. MARYS, Camden County 
Lang, Walter 

SANDERSVILLE, Washington County 
Harrison, T. I. 
Red Bird Lbr. Co. 
Rough Diamond Lbr. Co. 

SAVANNAH, Chatham County 
Forester-Cunningham Lbr. Co. 
Godley-Green Lbr. Co. 
Liberty Lbr. Co. 
Mead & Manucy 
Reynolds & Manley Co. 
Savannah River Lbr. Co. 
Smith, W. W. Lbr. Co. 
Southern Lbr. Co. 
Stovall. W. I. 



SCOTLAND, Telfair County 
Wilks Brothers 

SENOIA, Coweta County 
Nations, T. D. 

SHARON, Taliaferro County 
Flynt & Moore 

SHELLMAN, Randolph County 
Church-Robinett Lbr. Co. 

SILOAM, Green County 
Boswell, E. T., Co. 

SMITHVILLE, Lee County 
Fite, J. B. 
Lee County Lbr. Co. 

SOPERTON, Treutlen County 
Fowler, James 

SPARKS, Cook County 
Stutts & Daugherty 

SPARTA, Hancock County 
Archer, J. M. 
Ethridge Lbr. Co. 

STATESBORO, Bulloch County 
Howard, Arthur 

STEVENS POTTERY, Baldwin County 
Weaver, W. T. 

STILSON, Bulloch County 
Brown-Bland Lbr. Co. 
Zickgraf Lbr. Co. 

SUMMERVILLE, Chattooga County 
Edwards, Daniel 

SUWANEE, Gwinnett County 
Jones, Gus 

SWAINSBORO, Emanuel County 
Lamb, T. D. 
Swainsboro Lbr. Co. 

SYLVANIA, Screven County 
Brantley, W. L. 
Mallory Bros. 
Perkins, M. & H. 
Sylvania Lbr. Co. 
United Lbr. & Timber Co. 
White, J. C. 

SYLVESTER, Worth County 
Simmerly & Lawrence 

TALBOTTON, Talbot County 
Carlisle, J. B. 
Hampton Lbr. Co. 
Southmont Mfg. Co. 



25 



TALKING ROCK, Pickens County 
Talking Rock Mfg. Co. 

THOMASTON, Upson County 
Garner, Green & Matthews 
Kins: and Thurston 
Perkins, J. T. 

THOMASVILLE, Thomas County 
Kirby Planing Mill Co. 
Houston Lbr. & Tie Co. 
McCallum, P. J. Co. 
Turner, J. L. Co. 
Upchurch, W. J. 
Williams, Homer 

THOMSON, McDuffie County 
Bowden, Paul A. 
Bowden-Kunnes Lbr. Co. 
Knox Lbr. Co. 
Lovelace-Brown Lbr. Co. 

TIFTON, Tift County 
Coarsey Lbr. Co. 
Postell Lbr. Co. 

TIGNALL, Wilkes County 
Savannah Valley Lbr. Co. 
Seymour, J. W. 

TOOMSBORO, Wilkinson County 
Lord, J. T., Jr. 
Lovelace-Eubanks Lbr. Co. 

TRENTON, Dade County 
Morrison & Pace 

UNADILLA, Dooly County 
King Lbr. & Oil Co. 



WARTHEN, Washington County 
Rachel, A. P. & Bro. 
Warthen Lbr. Co. 

WARWICK, Worth County 
Whitfield, L. C. 

WASHINGTON, Wilkes County 
Mauney, Frank L. 
Pope Lbr. Co. 
Scott-Strother Lbr. Co. 
Washington Mfg. Co. 

WAVERLY HALL, Harris County 
Waverly Hall Lbr. Co. 

WAYNESBORO, Burke County 
Claxton, R. L. 
Green Bros. 
Waynesboro Planing Mill 

WAYSIDE, Jones County 
Wood, J. D. 

WEST POINT, Troup County 
Batson-Cook Co. 

WESTON, Webster County 
Weston Lbr. Co. 

WHITE, Bartow County 
Starr, J. W. & Sons 

WHITE PLAINS, Green County 
Taylor Bros. 

WHITESBURG, Carroll County 
Duncan, C. A. 
Edgeworth, W. F. 



UVALDA, Montgomery County 
Johnson, W. A. 
McArthur, J. J. 

VALDOSTA, Lowndes County 
Baker & Co. 
Bray, J. N., Lbr. Co. 
Downer Lbr. Co. 
Jackson Bros. Lbr. Co. 

VILLA RICA, Carroll County 
Henslee, A. 
Neal & Manor 

WADLEY, Jefferson County 
Middle Georgia Lbr. Co. 
Warm Springs Planing Mill 

WARRENTON, Warren County 
Bostonville Planing Mill Co. 
McBrayer Lbr. Co. 
Shelton, W. T. 
Thompson, E. J. 

WARSAW, Mcintosh County 
Warsaw Lbr. Co. 



WILLACOOCHEE, Atkinson County 
Doster & Ladson 

WINDER, Bartow County 
Jones, W. J. 
Millsaps, G. S. 

WOODSTOCK, Cherokee County 
Poor, A. F. 

WOODVILLE, Green County 
Moody, C. G. 

WRENS, Jefferson County 
Wren Bros. 
Wren, R. A. 

WRIGHTSVILLE, Johnson County 
Jackson, M. A. 
Keel Lbr. Co. 
Lovett, W. H., Lbr. Co. 
Rowland, R. H. 
Smith, R. H. 

YATESVILLE, Upson County 
Brown, W. M. 



26 



GEORGIA LUMBER, MILLWORK AND BUILDING 
MATERIAL DEALERS 



ACWORTH 
Carruth Gin & Lbr. Co. 
McClure & Fowler 



ADAIRSVILLE 
Cedar Springs Mfg. 
Shaw Lbr. Co. 



Co. 



ALBANY 

Hodges Builders Supply Co. 
Home Builders Supply Co. 
The Ross Co. 
W. A. Stokes 

AMERICUS 
Americus Construction Co. 
W. W. McNeill Lbr. Co. 
J. W. Shiver 

ASHBURN 
C. E. Thrasher 

ATLANTA 
Addison-Rudesal 
Atlanta Aggregate Co. 
Atlanta Oak Flooring Co. 
Campbell Coal Co. 
Carolina Portland Cement Co. 
Cleveland-Oconee Lbr. Co. 
Cromer & Thornton, Inc. 
Deckner-Willingham 
DeJarnette Supply Co. 
W. B. Disbro Lbr. Co. 
East Side Coal & Lbr. Co. 
Gresham Mfg. Co. 
Dan Klein & Son 
V. H. Kreigshaber & Son 
Imperial Pine Corporation 
Frank G. Lake 
Marbut-Williams Lbr. Co. 
Miller Lbr. Co. 
Pattillo Lbr. Co. 
Patterson Lbr. Co. 
Phoenix Planing Mill 
Randall Bros., Ins. 
Smith & Simpson Lbr. Co. 
J. W. Starr & Son 
A. C. Walters 
E. G. Walton 
West Lbr. Co. 
Williams Bros. Lbr. 
Williams-Flynt Lbr. Co. 
Willingham-Tift Lbr. Co. 
Womack Lime & Cement Co. 

ATHENS 

Carter-Moss Lbr. Co. 

The Dozier Co. 

R. L. Moss Mfg. Co. 



AUGUSTA 
Augusta Building Supply Co. 
Augusta Lbr. Co. 
Burum Co. 
Perkins Mfg. Co. 
D. Slusky & Son 
Whaley Bros. 
Woodward Lbr. Co. 
Youngblood Builders Supply Co. 

AUSTELL 
R. M. Brown 

BALL GROUND 
Wheeler Lbr. Co. 

BAGDAD 
W. P. Nutt 
Bagdad Land & Lbr. Co. 

BAINBRIDGE 
J. G. McKenzie 
Ramsey-Wheeler Co. 

BAXLEY 
R. E. Jarman & Sons 

BLACKSHEAR 
J. B. Truett Co. 

BLAKELY 
Hall Lbr. Co. 

BLUE RIDGE 
M. K. McKinney 

BOSTON 
Boston Lbr. Co. 

BRASELTON 
Braselton Improvement Co. 

BREMEN 
E. C. Wilson 
J. W. Wood 

BRENTWOOD 
Brentwood Lbr. Co. 

BRUNSWICK 
Bladen Tie & Lbr. Co. 
Brunswick Lbr. & Supply Co. 
Brunswick Peninsula Co. 
Coney & Barker Co. 
Glynn Lbr. Co. 
Lang Planing Co. 
Lumber Supply Co. 

BUFORD 
Bona Allen, Inc. 
W. G. Deaton 
L. E. Strickland 



27 



CALHOUN 
Calhoun Lbr. Co. 

CANTON 
Jones Mercantile Co. 

CARROLLTON 
Carrollton Hardware Co. 
J. L. Kaylor 
D. F. New 

CARTERSVILLE 
Knight Mercantile Co. 
Smith Lbr. Co. 

CASSANDRA 
Clark & Tucker 

CEDARTOWN 
J. W. Dingier 
Hightower Lbr. & Supply Co. 

CHAMBLEE 
Chestnut & Nash 

CHATSWORTH 
Empire Talc & Lbr. Co. 

CLARKESVILLE 
W. A. Church 
Hill Planing Co. 

CLAYTON 
P. A. Hunter 

COLLEGE PARK 
College Park Supply Co. 
Creel Lbr. Co. 

COLUMBUS 
Butts Lbr. Co. 
Carter Lbr. Co. 
Cooper Lbr. Co. 
Dudley Sash & Door Co. 
Harvey Lbr. Co. 
Williams Lbr. Co. 

COMER 
Gholston Bros. 

COMMERCE 
Commerce Brick & Lbr. Co. 

CONYERS 
W. R. Still 

CORDELE 
Cordele Sash & Door Co. 
Crisp Lbr. Co. 

CORNELIA 

Cornelia Hardware Co. 
Gallaway & Hopper 
Holbrook Hardware Co. 



COVINGTON 
S. H. Adams 

CRAWFORDVILLE 

C. H. Golucke & Son 

CUTHBERT 
Cuthbert Coal & Wood Co. 

DALLAS 
Dallas Milling Co. 
Lee Hardware Co. 

DALTON 
Acme Lbr. Co. 
Cherokee Mfg. Co. 
Farrar Lbr. Co. 

DAWSON 
Dawson Variety Works 

D. H. Rowland & Son 
Shields-Geise Lbr. Co. 

DECATUR 
DeKalb Supply Co. 

DOUGLAS 
Pat Darby Lbr. Co. 

DOUGLASVILLE 
W. C. Abercrombie 
J. W. House & Sons 

DUBLIN 

Dublin Sash & Door Co. 
J. M. Dettys Lbr. Co. 

E. B. Mackey Lbr. Co. 
McDaniel & Mackey 

DULUTH 
I. M. Suddeth 

EASTMAN 
Nicholson Lbr. Co. 

EAST POINT 
East Point Lbr. Co. 

EATONTON 
C. M. Hudson 

EDISON 
W. E. Pierce 

ELBERTON 
Herndon & Smith 

ELLA GAP 
Davis Brothers 

EASTPORT 
Brooks-Scanlon Corporation 

FAIRBURN 
Johnson & Co. 



28 



FARMINGTON 
H. T. Murrow 

FAYETTEVILLE 
Redwine Brothers 

FITZGERALD 
Standard Supply Co. 

FORSYTH 
Forsyth Coal & Lbr. Co. 
Webb Lbr. Co. 

FORT GAINES 
Kellingsworth Hardware Co. 
Ross Hardware Co. 
Georgia Basket & Lbr. Co. 

GAINESVILLE 

C. M. Chambers 

FORT VALLEY 
Davis-Washington Co. 

GAY 
Gay & Keith 

GEORGETOWN 
Pine Lbr. Co. 

GRANTVILLE 
Grantville Lbr. Co. 

GREENSBORO 
McCommons-Thompson Boswell Co. 

GREENVILLE 
Builders Supply Co. 

GRIFFIN 
Gresham Mfg. Co. 
Griffin Lbr. Co. 
Newton Coal & Lbr. Co. 
Robt. Wheaton & Sons 

HAMPTON 
Henderson Coal & Lbr. Co. 

HARTWELL 

D. C. Alford 

J. W. Temple & Sons 

HAWKINSVILLE 
W. D. McEachern 

HELEN 
Morse Bros. Lbr. Co. 

HOGANSVILLE 
Johnson Lbr. Co. 

HOWARD 
J. J. & C. H. Edwards 



JACKSON 
H. T. Gilmore 
W. P. Nutt 

JEFFERSONVILLE 
Whitaker Lbr. Co. 

JONESBORO 
W. H. Turnipseed 

LAFAYETTE 

Chas. Clemons 

John Howard 

LaFayette Coal & Wholesale Co. 

E. A. Puryear 

Quillian & Clemons 

LAGRANGE 
Daniel Lbr. Co. 
LaGrange Lbr. & Supply Co. 

LAVONIA 
Harbin Bros. 
L. O. Mauldin 

LAWRENCEVILLE 
E. B. Rockmore 

LILLY 
Ricks Lbr. Co. 

LITHIA SPRINGS 
P. H. Winn 

LITHONIA 
A. J. Almand & Co. 

LOCUST GROVE 
R. H. & M. M. Brown 
A. G. Combs 

LOGANSVILLE 
Logansville Lbr. Co. 

MACON 
Bibb Lbr. Co. 
Builders Lbr. Co. 
T. C. Burke, Inc. 
Case-Fowler Lbr. Co. 
Central City Lbr. Co. 
Central Sash & Door Co. 
Chambers Lbr. Co. 
E. J. Hancock 
James Lbr. Co. 
Macon Supply Co. 
J. W. McCook Lbr. Co. 
C. J. Molton Lbr. Co. 
The Ross Co. 
Willingham Sash & Door Co. 

MADISON 
Farmers Hardware Co. 

MANCHESTER 
J. P. Corley Lbr. Co. 



29 



MANSFIELD 
Mansfield Lbr. Co. 

MARIETTA 
Black Builders Supply Co. 
McNeel Lbr. Co. 
Stephens Lbr. Co. 

MAXEYS 
A. T. Brightwell & Song 

Mcdonough 

Berry Lbr. Co. 

Carmichael Lbr. & Coal Co. 

Planters Warehouse & Lbr. Co. 

METTER 
Metter Lbr. Co. 

MIDVILLE 
M. D. Jones 

MILLEDGEVILLE 
Bland Lbr. Co. 
Fowler-Flemister, Inc. 

MILLEN 
Builders Supply Co. 

MINERAL BLUFF 
R. W. Nichols 

MONROE 
Langston Lbr. Co. 
W. H. Nunnally 
McKenzie Lbr. & Supply Co. 

MONTICELLO 
R. L. Marsh 
Builders Supply Co. 

MORELAND 
Cureton-Cole Co. 

MOULTRIE 
Colquitt Lbr. Co. 
Davis-Jenkins & Sons 
Ladson Lbr. Co. 
Johnson-Battle Lbr. Co. 

OCILLA 
C. O. Betts 

OCHLOCHNEE 
Tyson Lbr. Co. 

PALMETTO 
F. H. Redwine Co. 

PELHAM 
Whaley Bros. 

PERRY 
Perry Warehouse Co. 

POWDER SPRINGS 
M. A. J. Landers 



QUITMAN 
King Lbr. A Remilling Co. 
South Georgia Lbr. Co. 

RANGER 
G. C. Earnest 

RINGGOLD 
J. H. Clark 

ROCKMART 
Davenport Brothers 

ROME 
Chenoweth- Holder Lbr. Co. 
H. J. Keown Lbr. Co. 
Marshall Mfg. Co. 
O'Neill Lbr. & Box Mfg. Co. 

ROSWELL 
I. M. Roberts 

ROYSTON 
Harbin Bros. 

SANDERSVILLE 
C. A. Adams 
Lang's Variety Works 

SASSER 
J. M. Barner 

SAVANNAH 

A. S. Bacon & Sons 
Atlantic Long & Export Co. 
W. J. Bremer 
Burns & Harmon 
Bright-Brooks Lbr. Co. 
John G. Butler Co. 
Forest Purchasing Co. 
General Building Supply Co. 
J. L. Highsmith 
Neal & Blun Co. 
Penn Waller Lbr. Co. 
Quarterman & Ellis 
Savannah Planing Mill 
Savannah River Lbr. Co. 
Stevens Supply Co. 
Dan Shehan 
Julian A. Tison's Sons 

SOCIAL CIRCLE 
Wallace-Cowan Lbr. Co. 

SPARTA 
Sparta Lbr. Co. 

STATHAM 

J. S. Holliday 

STOCKBRIDGE 
J. W. PatUlo 

SWAINSBORO 
J. R. Coleman 
J. W. ft C. I. HaU 



30 



SYLVANIA 

Jenkins Mfg. Co. 
M. & H. Perkins 

SYLVESTER 
Hillhouse Hardware Co. 
Shell Lbr. Co. 

TALBOTTON 
Jordan Supply Co. 

TALKING ROCK 
L. A. Silver 

TALLULAH LODGE 
J. E. Harvey 

THOMASTON 
Alvan Nelson Lbr. Co. 
Paul Johnston Lbr. Co. 
Thomaston Lbr. Co. 

THOMASVILLE 
W. E. Beverly 
L. F. Driver & Co. 
Kirby Planing: Mill 
Thomasville Variety Works 

THOMSON 
Knox Hatcher Lbr. Co. 
Thomson Builders Supply Co. 

TIFTON 
Goodman Golden Lbr. Co. 
Wilder Lbr. Co. 

TOCCOA 
Ramsey-Martin Hardware Co. 

UNION CITY 
Union City Lbr. Co. 

UNION POINT 

Stewart & Ruthford 

VALDOSTA 
The J. N. Bray Co. 
Briggs Hardware Co. 
Eva Lbr. Co. 
Ga. Fla. Lbr. Co. 
Georgia Lbr. & Supply Co. 



Jackson Bros. 

Larsen & Forbes Hardware Co. 

Nolan Lbr. Co. 

Paine Hardware Co. 

Stump Bros. 

Strickland Hardware Co. 

Valdosta Builders Supply Co. 

VIDALIA 
J. T. Regan & Co. 

VIENNA 
J. B. Peavy 

VILLA RICA 
O. B. Camp 
Cleghorn Bros. 

WARRENTON 
F. L. Howell 
D. L. Stone 

WASHINGTON 
Washington Mfg. Co. 

WATKINSVILLE 
Nicholson & Ward 

WAVERLY HALL 
Pitts Lbr. Co. 

WAYCROSS 
Enterprise Mfg. Co. 

WAYNESBORO 
Builders Supply Co. 
Neely Builders Supply Co. 

WEST POINT 
West Point Coal & Lbr. Co. 
vVest Point Iron Works 

WINDER 
-'Jew Windsor Lbr. Co. 

WOODBURY 
Anthony Lbr. Co. 

ZEBULON 
fidwell Lbr. Co. 



31 



: 3S3b 



Georgia Forest Service 

B. M. LUFBURROW, State Forester 



Jan., 1930 



ATLANTA, GEORGIA 



Bui. 5 



Uses of Georgia Woods 

With Directory of Wood Manufactures, Saw Mills 

and Dealers in Lumber and Mill Work Materials 

(Second Edition) 



By 

CHARLES A. WHITTLE 
Director of Education and Utilization 




Uses of Georgia Woods 

The value of Georgia's wood products in 1925, as given 
by the United States Census, was $122,000,000. From the 
state's 23,000,000 acres in forests it is possible to grow trees 
that can be utilized to produce commodities worth annually 
more than $122,000,000. To do this, the landowners must 
manage the forests so that they will produce the maximum 
wood growth. This means that the landowner must protect 
the forest from fire, thin it properly, harvest mature trees and 
otherwise practice good forest management. 

But to realize the full value of the state's forest resources 
there should be a full appreciation of the uses of its various 
woods. 

Each year large quantities of building material are shipped 
into Georgia that could as well have been supplied by Georgia 
forests. For instance, white pine, not grown in appreciable 
amounts in the South, is often specified for frames, doors and 
sash for Georgia structures, whereas cypress, yellow pine and 
other southern woods could be used. 

Georgia has a wealth of trees desirable for use in interior 
finishing which it is not using to the greatest advantage. Noth- 
ing is more beautiful and suitable for interior finishing than 
red gum, black walnut and magnolia. Cypress, chestnut, oaks 
and other trees grown in this state also lend themselves to this 
purpose. Yet quite a good deal of money is spent annually for 
this class of material produced in other sections of the country. 

In the hope of aiding the forest owner to a better under- 
standing of his forest resources and his market, and in the hope 
of stimulating larger demands for Georgia's woods, this publi- 
cation presents brief statements of the character and uses of 
leading commercial woods of the state, and also a list of leading 
saw mills, woodworking plants and lumber dealers of Georgia. 



Fire Protection Essential 

Too much stress can not be laid on forest fire prevention as 
an essential to growing trees with reasonable rapidity and for 
producing sound lumber. When fire passes through a Georgia 
forest as a rule the flames consume only the leaves and debris 
on the forest floor and scar the butts of the large trees. But 
sometimes when there is considerable debris such as is usually 
left after a logging operation, the flame are so intense as to kill 
a part or all the trees. 

Even when the fire is of the ordinary kind that does not kill 
the larger growth, the harm resulting is that (1) seedlings are 
killed; (2) the humus that is an important source of tree plant 
food is destroyed, thus starving the trees and slowing down 
their rate of growth; (3) the mulch covering the forest floor 
that absorbs and conserves the rainfall needed for tree growth 
is consumed. 

Fires burn the trunks of trees destroying some of the 
tissue needed in carrying plant food up from the soil. Decay 
enters these scars and penetrates to the heart of the trunk, 
causing hollow places and destroying the best lumber in the tree. 

The weakening of trees resulting from decreased supply of 
plant food and moisture and the decay that the fires are respon- 
sible for, cause trees to be more susceptible to insect and disease 
injury. This means destruction of wood or impairment of the 
quality of the lumber. 

The Georgia Forest Service is undertaking through various 
means to educate the public to an appreciation of the mean- 
ing of forest fires. It has its timber protective organizations 
through which federal aid is extended; it is cooperating with 
100 rural high schools in conducting demonstration forests that 
teach methods of fire control; it cooperates in putting on mov- 
ing pictures that teach forest fire prevention to rural schools 
throughout the state; it has prepared and distributed forest fire 
posters: carries on campaigns through newspapers and with 
every opportunity representatives of the Georgia Forest Service 



talk to audiences and speak to individuals about keeping fires 
out of the forests. It is a campaign that everyone is invited to 
join and urged to wage in Georgia. 



Leading Woods of Georgia and Their Uses 

Descriptions of leading woods of Georgia and statements 
of their main uses are given below. Other uses than those men- 
tioned may exist and still others may be developed. 

Pines 

LOBLOLLY (Pinus taeda.) Found most abundantly in 
upper coastal plain and lower Piedmont. In the market it is 
included in the class of "yellow pine." The grain is coarser 
than longleaf pine and the wood is lighter and softer. It is 
used for building materials, box shooks, barrel staves, basket 
veneer, pulpwood, lath, mine props, piling, crossties, telephone 
poles when creosoted; for excelsior and sometimes for turpen- 
tining though the yield is poor. 

LONGLEAF PlNE (Pinus palustris.) It is prevalent in the 
coastal plain and scattered in comparatively small quantities in 
the Piedmont area. The wood is heavy, hard, strong, nearly 
all heart, and is quite durable. It is used for all kinds of 
building material and because of its strength it is used for long 
timbers in construction work of buildings, bridges, columns, 
masts, spars, etc. It is also used as crossties, posts, mine prop, 
log cabins, staves, shingles, and palings. Creosoted blocks of 
longleaf pine are used for paving. The dead leaves (pine straw) 
are employed for making baskets and fancy holders of various 
kinds. Its gum is used for naval stores — that is, turpentine, 
rosin, tar, etc. This is obtained not only by chipping off the 
bark and collecting gum, but by distilling stumps, roots and 
tree tops left after logging. A fibre residue of the distillation 



process is used for packing purposes and for making wall board. 
The pine needles or leaves are used for making baskets and mats 
and for charcoal production. 

SLASH PlNE (Pinus catibaea.) Slash pine is found in the 
coastal plain and predominates over the longleaf on low, moist 
lands. It grows more rapidly than longleaf for the first thirty 
years. The wood is heavy, hard, strong, tough and durable. 
It is highly resinous and is a heavy yielder of naval stores 
products. Its wood and leaves are adapted very generally to the 
same purpose ascribed to longleaf pine. 

SHORTLEAF PlNE (Pinus echinata.) This variety predomi- 
nates in the mountainous section and is found quite generally 
in the Piedmont area. The wood is moderately hard and strong, 
its color yellowish to dark brown. It is manufactured into * 
lumber, boxes, crates and other containers. It is in demand for 
woodpulp, veneers, excelsior, cooperage and mine props. 

BLACK PlNE (Pinus serotina.) This is sometimes called 
pond pine and pocosin. It grows in low, swampy, sour 
lands of the coastal plain. While inferior to longleaf in quality 
of lumber it is generally accepted as "yellow pine" by the trade. 
The wood is heavy, coarse-grained, orange to pale yellow in 
color with abundant sapwood. It can be used as other pines 
described for most types of construction. 

OTHER CONIFERS. A limited amount of white pine, hem- 
lock, scrub and pitch pine is found in the mountainous part of 
the state. White pine is in ready demand for building purposes. 
The other pines will probably find their greatest use in the 
production of wood pulp. 

Oaks 

WHITE OAK (Quercus alba.) The white oak is common 
to all parts of the state. Its wood is durable, tough, strong, 
elastic and straight grained, qualities that recommend it for 
many uses, such as beams, furniture, book cases, vehicles, tight 
cooperage, interior finish, baskets, splint bottomed chairs, cross- 



ties, fence posts, etc. Its acorns make good hog feed. The 
inner bark of young trees is distilled for medicinal purposes. 

POST Oak (Quercus stellata.) This tree is widely dis- 
tributed over the state. Its wood is light to dark brown, hard, 
close-grained, durable in contact with the soil. It is used for 
many of the purposes to which white oak is put such as furni- 
ture, interior finish, beams, crossties, fence posts and flooring, 
but the lumber is not considered quite as good as white oak. It 
makes fairly good staves. 

SOUTHERN RED Oak (Quercus rubra.) This is also called 
Spanish oak, and grows widely over the state. The wood is 
hard, strong, coarse-grained, not durable. The wood is light 
red. It is used for rough furniture, general construction, cross- 
ties, interior finishing and cooperage. Its bark is used for mak- 
ing tannin. 

NORTHERN Red Oak (Quercus borealis) is scattered 
through the state, but is most common in the mountains. It is 
used for cooperage, interior finish, general construction, furni- 
ture, crossties, etc. 

BLACK Oak (Quercus velutina.) This tree is also called 
yellow oak and grows extensively over the state. Its wood is 
bright reddish-brown with a thin layer of paler sapwood. It is 
sold as "red oak" and used for the same general purposes. The 
bark is used to produce a yellow dye and is also used for making 
tannic acid. 

WATER Oak (Quercus nigra.) Water oak grows along 
streams, in bottom lands and along borders of swamps. The 
wood is light-brown, heavy, hard and strong. It is used for 
crossties, pilings and fuel, and is favored for planting as a shade 
tree. 

Other oaks belonging to the water oak class and similarly 
used are the laurel oak (quercus laurifolia) and willow oak 
(quercus phellos) . 



CHESTNUT Oak (Quercus montana.) This tree is widely 
distributed in the mountainous section of the state, especially 
on rocky, gravelly slopes. Its wood is heavy, hard, strong and 
durable in contact with soil, ranking close to white oak. It is 
used for crossties, bridge timbers, fence posts and rough construc- 
tion. Its bark is preferred to all other oaks for its tannic acid. 

SWAMP CHESTNUT Oak (Quercus pvinus) sometimes called 
"basket oak" because it is adapted to making baskets, and some- 
times called "cow oak" because its leaves are eaten by cows. 
It is sparsely distributed. It makes excellent wood, with uses 
similar to white oak; in fact, is sold as white oak. 

LIVE Oak (Quercus virginiana.) This variety is abundant 
in the coastal plain. The wood is heavy, tough, hard, nearly 
white. It was formerly used extensively as "ship knees." It is 
used for mauls, rollers, meat blocks, wood pulp and veneer. 
The sweet kernel of its nut makes it palatable. Indians boiled 
and parched it and ate it as bread. 

OTHER OAKS. Turkey oak (Quercus catesbaei) is a com- 
mon oak of the coastal plain dry ridges and hammocks. It is 
used to some extent as rough lumber and general construction. 
Scarlet oak (Quercus coccinea) , sometimes called pin oak, widely 
distributed but sparse, is sold as red oak and is also planted as 
shade trees. Black Jack oak (Quercus marilandica) is found in 
all parts of the state. Its only use at present is for fuel. 

Tulip (Poplar) 

YELLOW POPLAR (Liriodendron tulipifera.) This valuable 
tree grows in all parts of the state, reaching its greatest growth 
in rich cove lands of the mountains. Its wood is light yellow 
or brown; light, soft and easily worked; put to a great variety 
of uses, such as building materials, exterior and interior, veneers, 
vehicle bodies, turnery, woodenware, furniture, imitation ma- 

8 



hogany veneer, excelsior, boxes, crates, porch columns, shingles, 
baskets, woodpulp, crossties, etc. 

Cypress 

CYPRESS (Taxodium distichum) is found in the lower 
coastal plain in deep swamps and in low, moist lands along 
streams. The wood is light and soft but very durable. Its color 
varies from light sapwood to dark brown heartwood. The wide 
adaptability of this wood makes it economically very impor- 
tant. Its durability under exposure and contact with soil makes 
it very desirable for sash, doors, frames, blinds; for piles, cross- 
ties, tanks, telegraph poles, shingles, water pipes, silos, buckets, 
churns, freezers, boats, greenhouse frames, etc. 



Gums 

Red Gum (Liquidambar styraciflua.) This tree is also 
known as "sweet gum." It is widely distributed over the state 
and in recent years has become one of the valued woods. The 
heartwood is reddish brown and the sapwood of lighter color. 
The wood is close-grained, moderately hard, heavy. It lends 
itself to interior uses in the place of Circassian walnut, which 
with proper treatment, it very closely resembles and, by many, 
considered more beautiful. It also can be stained to resemble 
mahogany. It should be more generally used for furniture, 
desks, cabinets, doors, interior finishings of homes and store 
buildings; for gun stocks, boxes, floors, woodpulp, etc. 

BLACK Gum (Nyssa biflora) is a different species of tree 
from red gum. It is also called sour gum and bee gum, and 
is found in great abundance in low, wet lands and swamps over 
the state. The wood is tough, cross-grained. It is used for 
crate and basket veneers, box shooks, rough floors, rollers, 
mallets, mauls, hubs, woodpulp, etc. A variety of black gum 



(nyssa sylvatica) is common on dryer lands and very similar 
in appearances and uses to black gum above described. In 
fact, it is not generally regarded as being different from it. 

TUPELO (Nyssa aquatica, Nyssa uniflora Wang) , some- 
times sold as bay poplar, is native to ffwamps. Formerly con- 
sidered worthless as lumber, but with improved method of 
curing it has become useful in all lines in which yellow poplar 
is used. On account of its freedom from splintering it is desir- 
able for flooring of warehouses and freight platforms. Its chief 
uses are for veneer for boxes, crates, etc. Cigar boxes and musi- 
cal instruments are made of it. 

Chestnut 

CHESTNUT (Castanea dentata) is native to the mountain 
and Piedmont region. On account of the spread of chestnut 
blight against which no defense has been found, this tree is 
threatened with extinction. It is, therefore, important to utilize 
it to the fullest extent before it is killed. The wood is soft, 
light, straight-grained and very durable in contact with the soil. 
It can be used for a large number of purposes, such as interior 
finish, sash, doors, frames, sheeting, crossties, telephone poles, 
posts and shingles. Both wood and bark are in demand by 
tanneries. 

Cedar 

Red CEDAR (Juniperus vitginiana) is found in all parts 
of the state. The heart wood is quite red and the sapwood 
white, this contrast adding to its attractiveness. The wood is 
strong, soft, with straight grain. Its adaptability to lead pencils 
is unsurpassed. On account of its durability, cedar has been 
favored for telephone and telegraph poles and fence posts. Sawed 
into lumber it finds popularity in the production of clothes 
chests, for lining of closets, for interior finishings of rooms, etc. 
A valuable oil is made from the wood and green twigs. 

10 



WHITE CEDAR (Chamacy parts thyoides) is common to 
South Georgia swamp lands or "glades." The wood is soft, 
close-grained, slightly aromatic. It is in demand for cooperage, 
shingles, fence posts, boats, telephone and telegraph poles, etc. 

Walnut 

BLACK WALNUT (Juglans nigra) is found growing on rich 
lowlands and fertile hillsides in various parts of the state. Its 
wood is hard, strong, heavy, close-grained and susceptible of 
high polish. The color of the wood of old trees is a rich choco- 
late brown. The wood is highly valued for furniture, desks, 
cabinets, interior finishing, gun stocks, sewing machines, musical 
instruments and airplane propellers. Black walnut lumber 
brings the highest price of any Georgia grown wood. The nuts 
are a source of revenue and the hulls of the nuts were formerly 
used for making a dye for homespun cloth. 

WHITE WALNUT (Juglans cinera) , sometimes called butter- 
nut. It is found only in the mountains where it is quite 
common. The wood is light brown, light, soft, coarse-grained, 
not strong. It takes a high polish and is used for interior finish- 
ing and furniture. A yellow or orange dye is made from the 
hulls of the nut. 

Hickory 

WHITE HICKORY (Carya alba) — also known as white- 
heart hickory and mockernut hickory, has a wood very hard, 
heavy, strong, tough and pliable. The heartwood is light brown 
to reddish with rather wide margin of white sapwood, not dur- 
able in contact with the soil. It is common to all well-drained 
soils throughout the State. Its wood is used for vehicles, tool 
handles, athletic goods, for smoking meats, etc. 

Scaly-Bark Hickory (Carya ovata) is found along 
streams and rich moist hillsides throughout the state. The wood 
is heavy, strong, hard, tough and flexible and is used for tool 

11 



handles, vehicles and many other ways where strength and 
flexibility of woods are desired. 

The wood of all hickories is used for very much the same 
purposes. Other hickories found widely over the state are: 
Pignut Hickory (Carya Glabra) , found mainly in middle 
Georgia, and Bitternut Hickory (Carya Minima), scattered 
over the state, having reddish-brown wood somewhat inferior 
to other hickories. Less important commercially are Swamp 
Hickory (Carya Aquatica) and Pecan (Carya Pecan) . 

Ash 

WHITE Ash (Fraxinus ameticana) is common to all parts 
of the state. The wood is white to brown in color, and is highly 
prized because of its toughness and elasticity, and for this reason 
is used for handles for athletic goods such as rackets, bats, oars, 
and for vehicles, furniture, interior finish, etc. 

WATER Ash (Fraxinus catoliniana) and GREEN Ash 
(Fraxinus pennsylvanianca lanceolata) appear over the state, 
but are not equal to white ash and are not abundant enough to 
be of much commercial importance. 

Cherry 

WILD CHERRY (Prunus sevotina) , also called Black Cherry, 
reaches greatest development in the mountainous portion of the 
state. The wood is reddish-brown, close-grained and hard and 
takes a beautiful finish. It is highly prized for interior finish, 
cabinet making, veneer, panels, etc. Next to walnut, it brings 
the highest market price of any wood in eastern United States. 
Its bark is used for medicinal purposes, especially in cough medi- 
cines. 

Beech 

BEECH (Fagus gtandifolia) grows throughout the state 
usually in association with hickories and oaks on rich moist 

12 



land, its greatest development being in mountain coves. The 
wood is hard, light red in color, strong, tough, but is not 
durable when exposed to weather or soil. It is used for flooring, 
tools, novelty wares, charcoal, crates, veneer, bobbins, clothes 
pins, shoe lasts, boxes, handles, etc. 

BLUE BEECH (Carpinus caroliniana) , also called water 
beech, is found along streams throughout the state and is not 
abundant enough to be of much economic value. Its wood is 
used for tool handles, wooden cogs, mauls, wedges and levers. 

HORNBEAM (Ostrya virginiana) , also called Ironwood, is 
used in the same manner as beech. 

Locust 

BLACK LOCUST (Robinia pseudacacia) , also known as yel- 
low locust, found throughout the northern half of the state. 
The wood is yellow, coarse-grained and durable in contact with 
soil. It is prized as crossties, fence posts, telephone poles and 
insulator pins. 

HONEY LOCUST (Gleditsia triacanthos) , well known for its 
long pods, is scattered throughout the state. The wood is 
reddish-brown, not as durable as black locust, but is used suc- 
cessfully for fence posts, crossties and hubs. The pods provide 
food for hogs. 

Magnolia 

MAGNOLIA (Magnolia gvandiflota) , a well-known ever- 
green, grows to large size in moist soils of coastal plains. Its 
cream colored wood is moderately heavy and hard. It is com- 
ing into popularity for interior finishing, veneer, basket and 
crate manufacture and kitchen furniture. It is an outstanding 
evergreen tree of the South for ornamental planting and is grown 
for such purposes far north of its natural habitat. 

13 



MOUNTAIN MAGNOLIA (Magnolia fraseri) grows in the 
mountainous portion of the state, but is not commercially im- 
portant. It is used for lumber and pulpwood. 

CUCUMBER Tree (Magnolia acuminata) is also a moun- 
tain member of the magnolia family. It is used for the same 
purposes as poplar, its cousin. 

Basswood-Linden 

BASSWOOD and LINDEN (Tilia) are close kin, and the trade 
uses the names interchangeably. Trees of this kind are common 
to the mountains. Their wood is light brown, tough, cross- 
grained and used for woodenware, boxes, crates, millwork, pic- 
ture frames, moldings, piano keys, bread-boards, ironing boards, 
excelsior and woodpulp. Formerly their tough barks were used 
for making ropes. 

Birch 

RIVER BIRCH (Betula nigra) , also called Red Birch, is found 
along streams, ponds, in swamps and semi-swamp lands. The 
wood is close-grained and strong. It is used for woodenware, 
turnery, wagon hubs, hoops and handles. 

BLACK BIRCH (Betula lenta) is also known as Sweet Birch 
and Cherry Birch. It occurs only in hills and mountains. The 
wood is heavy, strong, hard and compact. Its dark-brown color 
has given it a local name of "mountain mahogany." It is used 
as a substitute for mahogany in making furniture, interior 
finishing, flooring, etc. 

Hemlock 

HEMLOCK (Tsuga canadensis) is found in the mountains 
of Georgia. The wood is light, soft, brittle and splinters readily. 
It is used for coarse lumber and woodpulp. The bark is valued 
for its tannin. 

CAROLINA HEMLOCK (Tsuga caroliniana) is also found in 
the mountains, and its wood and bark are used as described for 
Tsuga canadensis. 

14 



Sycamore 

SYCAMORE (Platanus occidentalis) , also called Buttonwood, 
grows throughout the state along streams and bottom lands. 
The wood is hard and moderately strong. Its chief uses are for 
butchers' blocks, tobacco boxes, interior finish, furniture and 
veneer. 

Sassafras 

SASSAFRAS (Sassafras officinale) grows in all parts of the 
state on dry soils, but not in the higher mountains. Its wood 
is soft and brittle, but is durable in contact with the soil. It is 
used for posts, rails, cooperage, etc. The bark and roots are 
used to produce sassafras tea; also oil of sassafras employed for 
flavoring. 

Willow 

BLACK WILLOW (Salix nigra) is common along streams, 
ponds and in moist lands throughout Georgia. Its wood is soft, 
light, but not strong. It is employed in making artificial limbs, 
high-grade charcoal, excelsior, boxes and crates. The twigs are 
plaited to protect river banks from erosion. Its bark contains 
salicylic acid which is used for medicinal purposes. 

COTTONWOOD (Poputus deltoides) , sometimes referred to 
as Carolina poplar, is scattered widely over the state, nowhere 
abundant. The wood is soft, light-weight, warps, but finds 
several uses such as substitutes for yellow poplar and linden, and 
converted into wood pulp makes high-grade paper. 

Swamp Cottonwood (Populus heterophylla) , Silverbell, 
is common along borders of rivers and swamps in the coastal 
plain region. The wood is light and soft. It is used for veneer, 
wood pulp and excelsior. 

Maple 

Red MAPLE (Acer rubrum) is known also as Swamp 
Maple, and is widely distributed through the state. Its wood is 

15 



sold as "soft maple" and is used in the manufacture of furni- 
ture, flooring, woodenware, turnery and paper pulp. 

SILVER MAPLE (Acer saccharinum) is found on moist 
lands and along streams. The wood is soft, smooth and rather 
brittle and is used for the same purposes as red maple. 

Persimmon-Dogwood-Holly 

PERSIMMON (Diospyros vivginiana) is found throughout 
the state. The wood is hard, dense, strong. The color of the 
heartwood is brown to black, the wide sapwood, white or 
yellowish. The wood is used for the manufacture of shuttles, 
bobbins, etc., in connection with knitting mills. The fruit is 
high in sugar content and valuable as food for man, game, hogs 
and cattle. 

DOGWOOD (Cornus flotida) is in great demand by cotton 
mills for the same purposes as persimmon. It is used for turn- 
ery, handles, forms, novelties, etc. 

HOLLY (Ilex opaca) , while regarded as having its greatest 
value as a source of holiday greens, it is sometimes cut and used 
for cabinet work, wood-turning, etc. 



16 



Directories 

Wood Manufacturers, Saw Mill Operators 
and Lumber Dealers of Georgia 

(In making up the following directories all available sources of informa- 
tion have been consulted, such as associations membership and other trade 
directories. It is possible that in spite of all our efforts some names may 
have been omitted. Any information that will help make the directories more 
complete will be welcomed for use in future issues of this bulletin.) 



CHIEF ARTICLES MANUFACTURED FROM WOOD IN 
GEORGIA AND NAMES OF LEADING PRODUCERS 



AGRICULTURAL IMPLEMENTS: 
Athens Foundry & Machine Works, 

Athens 
Atlanta Plow Co., Atlanta 
Benton Manufacturing Co., Monticello 
Camp, E. N. & Sen, Moreland 
Gantt Manufacturing Co., Macon 
Lilliston Implement Co., Albany 
Southern Plow Co., Columbus 
Tom Huston Mfg. Co., Columbus 
Towers & Sullivan, Rome 

AUTO BODIES: 
Columbus Fender & Body Works, 

Columbus 
Savannah River Lbr. Co., Savannah 
Yancey Brothers, Atlanta 

BASKETS: 
Atlanta Woodenware Co., Atlanta 
Georgia Basket & Lbr. Co., Brunswick 
Georgia Crate & Basket Co., Thomasville 
Georgia Veneer & Package Co., 

Brunswick 
Menlo Fruit Package Co., Menlo 
Peerless Basket Co., Cuthbert 
Pierpont Mfg. Co., Savannah 

BEE HIVES: 
Wilder, J. J., Waycross 

BLOCKS: 
Southern Wood Preserving Co., Atlanta 

BOBBINS AND SHUTTLES: 
Jordan Mfg. Co., Menticello 
Norris Brothers, Macon 



BOXES: 
Acworth Building Supply Co., Acworth 
Champion Box Co., Thomasville 
Cohutta Lumber Co., Chatsworth 
Cunningham- Wayne Box & Crate Co., 

Savannah 
Davis-Corum Box & Lumber Co., Macon 
Dawson Variety Works, Dawson 
Dudley Sash, Door & Lbr. Co., Columbus 
Elberta Crate Co., Bainbridge 
Georgia Crate & Basket Co., Thomasville 
Georgia Veneer & Package Co., Brunswick 
Glover Casket Co., Rome 
Griffin Box Co., Griffin 
Hightower Box & Tank Co., Atlanta 
Jeffreys & McElrath Mfg. Co., Macon 
Maxwell Brothers, Macon 
Menlo Fruit Package Co., Menlo 
Moultrie Box & Crate Co., Moultrie 
Mutual Mfg. Co., Savannah 
O'Neill Lumber & Box Mfg. Co., Rome 
Pierpont Mfg. Co., Savannah 
Reynolds Brothers Lbr. Co., Albany 
Southern Novelty Works, Demorest 
Union Box Mfg. Co., Atlanta 



CAR BUILDERS: 
Georgia Car & Locomotive Co. 



Atlanta 



CARRIAGES: 
Griffin Buggy Co., Griffin 
Jones, J. W., Cartersville 
Norman Buggy Co., Griffin 
Smith, Jackson G. & Co., Barnesville 

CASKETS: 
Atlanta Casket Co., Atlanta 
Capitol City Casket Co., Atlanta 



17 



LIBRAE 



CASKETS— Continued 
Glover Casket Co., Rome 
Columbus Cosket Co., Columbus 
Juniper Casket Co., Juniper 
Junction City Mfg. Co., Junction City 
Maddox, B. R., Jesup 
Mutual Mfg. Co., Savannah 
McNatt Coffin & Casket Co., Vidalia 
National Casket Co., Atlanta 
Southland Casket Co., Atlanta 
Warm Springs Planing Mills, Warm 
Springs 

CHARCOAL: 
Atlantic Turpentine & Pine Tar Co., 

Savannah 
Valdosta Tar & Turpentine Co., Valdosta 

COOPERAGE: 
Armuchee Cooperage Co., Rome 
Cannon, The Co., Cairo 
Colquitt County Cooperage Co., Moultrie 
Etowah Cooperage Co., Rome 
Georgia Cooperage Co., Tallapoosa 
Georgia Stave Co., Valdosta 
Macon Cooperage Co., Macon 
McElvey, O. A. & J. O., Pelham 
Oak City Cooperage Co., Bainbridge 
Reinschmidt Stave Co., Quitman 
Southern Cotton Oil Co., Savannah 
Southern Heading & Mfg. Co., Valdosta 
Standard Stave Co., Cairo 
Woolvin, R. B., Stave Co., Dublin 
Youmans Stave Co., Adrian 

COTTON GIN MACHINERY: 

Cen-Tennial Cotton Gin Co., Columbus 
Continental Cotton Gin Co., Columbus 
Lummus Cotton Gin Co., Columbus 
Massey Gin & Machine Works, Macon 
Murray Company, Atlanta 
Sea Island Cotton Gin Co., Vidalia 

CRATES: 
Champion Box Co., Thomasville 
Cunningham- Wayne Box & Crate Co., 

Savannah 
Elberta Crate Co., Bainbridge 
Enterprise Mfg. Co., Waycross 
Georgia Crate & Basket Co., Thomasville 
Georgia Veneer & Package Co., Brunswick 
Fort Valley Crate & Lbr. Co., Fort Valley 
Multrie Box & Crate Co., Moultrie 
Pierpont Mfg. Co., Savannah 
Southern Crate & Veneer Co., Macon 
Wilder Lumber Co., Tifton 
Wadley Veneer & Basket Co., Wadley 
Union Box Mfg. Co., Atlanta 

CROSS TIES (R. R. Material): 
Atlantic Tie & Timber Co., Savannah 
Baxley Planing Mill, Baxley 
Bladen Tie & Lumber Co., Brunswick 
Chauncy, V. N., Jesup 
Dicky, Lon, Fitzgerald 
Houston Lbr. Co., Thomasville 
Joyce- Watkins Co., Brunswick 
Mutual Timber Co., Brunswick 



Seals, C. N., Kingsland 

Southern Tie & Timber Co., Atlanta 

Stubbs & Stubbs, Douglas 

Superior Pine Products Co., Fargo 

Southern Wood Preserving Co., Atlanta 

Werden- Empire Lbr. Co., Albany 

DIMENSION STOCK: 
Cleveland-Oconee Lbr. Co., Atlanta 
Batson-Cook Co., West Point 
Case- Fowler Lbr. Co., Macon 
Green Bros., Waynesboro 
Harrison, T. I., Sandersville 
Massee & Felton Lbr. Co., Macon 
Middle Ga. Lbr. Co., Wadley 
Moore Lbr. Co., DeSoto 
Stovall, W. I., Sautee 
Savannah River Lbr. Co., Savannah 
West, W. J., Lbr. Co., Rising Fawn 

EXCELSIOR: 
Augusta Bedding Co., Augusta 
DuPre Mfg. Co., At'anta 
Georgia Cushion & Wrapper Co., 

Woodland 
Wadley Veneer & Basket Co., Wadley 

FIXTURES: 
Commercial Mfg. Co., Atlanta 
Cooper Lbr. Co., Columbus 
Druger Mfg. Co., Atlanta 
Macon Cabinet Works, Macon 
Muecke & Sons Co., Macon 
National Show Case Co., Columbus 
Womack, J. P., & Sons, Atlanta 

FLOORING: 
Atlanta Oak Flooring Co., Atlanta 
Karwisch, J. M., Wagon Works, Atlanta 
Kriegshaber, V. H., & Son, Atlanta 
Southern Wood Preserving Co., Atlanta 

FURNITURE: 
Arrhno Mfg. Co., Augusta 
Austell Cabinet Co., Austell 
Atlanta Table Co., Atlanta 
Atlas Furniture Mfg. Co., Atlanta 
Art Furniture Mfg. Co., Maccn 
Blanchard, Carter & Shebane, Crawford 
Bell wood Novelty Works, Atlanta 
Brumby Chair Co., Marietta 
Bond & Waite Mfg. Co., Toccoa 
Capitol City Chair Co., Atlanta 
Chattahoochee Furniture Co., Flowery i- 

B ranch 
Coastal Cabinet Works, Brunswick 
Carmichael Furniture Co., Atlanta 
Carter Show Case Co., Atlanta 
Cleveland-Oconee Lbr. Co., Atlanta 
Currahee Furniture Co., Toccoa 
Diana Furniture Co., Toccoa 
Duane Chair Co., Dalton ^- 
Estes Wollcott Co., Rex 
Floyd Brothers, Atlanta 
Fox Mfg. Co., Atlanta 
Geiger, W. T. P., Vidalia 
Georgia Chair Co., Gainesville 
Ginn Mfg. Co., Carnesville — 
Gholstin Spring & Mattress Co., Atlanta 
Ideal Furniture Co., Athens 



18 



FURNITURE— Continued 
Knott & Carmichael, Atlanta 
Krueger Mfg. Co., Atlanta 
Macon Cabinet Works, Macon 
Macon Lbr. & Mfg. Co., Macon 
Morrow-Cook Furniture Co., Albany v 
Muecke & Sons Co., Macon 
Rome Cabinet Co., Rome 
Rome Chair Co., Rome 
Rome Furniture Co., Rome 
Smith, Jackson G. & Co., Barnesville 
Southern Desk & Table Co., Atlanta 
Southern Novelty Works, Demorest 
Spratt Chair Co., Atlanta 
Stanbaugh, C. W., Demorest 
Star Furniture Co., Athens 
Toccoa Furniture Co., Toccoa 
Trogdon Furniture Co., Toccoa 
Union City Cabinet Works, Union City 
Washington Mfg. Co., Washington 
Winder Furniture Co., Winder 
Womack, J. P. & Sons, Atlanta 

HANDLES: 
Atlanta Woodenware Co., Atlanta 
Fowler Wainwright Hardware Co., Macon 
Hanna Mfg. Co., Athens 
Savannah Handle Co., Savannah 
Standard Tool & Handle Co., Macon 
Tifton Handle Mfg. Co., Tifton 

LATH: 
Barfield Lbr. Co., Vienna 
Carolina Portland Cement Co., Atlanta 
Daugherty McKey & Co., Valdosta 
East Point Lbr. Co., East Point 
Farrar Lbr. Co., Bainbridge 
Kriegshaber, V. H. & Son, Atlanta 
Pineora Mfg. Co., Pineora 
Reynolds Bros. Lbr. Co., Albany 
Williams, Homer, Thomasville 
Willingham-Tift Lbr. Co., Atlanta 
Woodward Lbr. Co., Augusta 
Zuber, John W., Atlanta 

LOG CARTS: 
Williams Mfg. Co., Macon 

PLYWOOD: 
Clark, R. C, Veneer Co., Atlanta 
Southern Hardwood Lbr. Co., Waynesboro 

PILES, POLES, POSTS: 
Bacon, A. S. & Sons, Savannah 
Chauncy, V. N., Jesup 
Savannah Creosoting Co., Savannah 
Seals, C. N., Kingsland 
Southern Wood Preserving Co., Atlanta 
Superior Pine Products Co., Fargo 

REFRIGERATORS: 
Warren, The Co., Atlanta 
Wright, The, Co., Atlanta 

SADDLE TREES: 
Flor, Edward Co., Demorest 

SASH, DOORS, BLINDS, MILL- 
WORK: 
American Box & Lbr. Co., Macon 
Americus Construction Co., Americus 



Augusta Lbr. Co., Augusta 

Bacon, A. S. & Sons, Savannah 

Baxley Planing Mill, Baxley 

Branch, Mrs. F. T., Quitman 

Bright-Brooks Lbr. Co., Savannah 

Bond & Waite Mfg. Co., Toccoa 

Butler, John G., Savannah 

Carter Lbr. & Mfg. Co., Columbus 

Central Sash & Door Co., Macon 

Cole, R. D. Mfg. Co., Newnan 

Cooper Lbr. Co., Columbus 

Cordele Sash, Door & Lbr. Co., Cordele 

Crisp County Lbr. Co., Cordele 

Carter Brothers, Rochelle 

Case-Fowler Lbr. Co., Macon 

Dawson Variety Works, Dawson 

DeKalb Supply Co., Decatur 

Campbell's Variety Works, Rockmart 

Disbro Lbr. Co., Atlanta 

Douglas Novelty Co., Douglas 

Dublin Sash & Door Co., Dublin 

Dudley Sash, Door & Lbr. Co., Columbus 

East Point Lbr. Co., East Point 

Farrar Lbr. Co., Dalton 

Gresham Mfg. Co., Griffin 

Harvey, W. T. Lbr. Co., Columbus 

Jakin Novelty Works, Jakin 

Lang's Variety Works, Sandersville 

Lanier, J. W., Valdosta 

LaGrange Lbr. & Supply Co., LaGrange 

Marbut-Williams Lbr. Co., Atlanta 

Marshall Mfg. Co., Rome 

Meigs Variety Works, Meigs 

Moss, R. L. Mfg. Co., Athens 

New, D. F., Carrollton 

O'Neill Box & Lbr. Co., Rome 

Pattillo Lbr. Co., Atlanta 

Perkins Mfg. Co., Atlanta 

Phoenix Planing Mill Co., Atlanta 

Randall Bros., Atlanta 

Shore, F. M., & Co., Quitman 

Thomasville Variety Works, Thomasville 

Valdosta Builders Supply, Valdosta 

Washington Mfg. Co., Washington 

Willingham Sash & Door Co., Macon 

Willingham-Tift Lbr. Co., Atlanta 

Woodward Lbr. Co., Augusta 

W. S. Askew Co., Newnan 

Williams, Homer, Thomasville 

SHINGLES: 

Archer, J. M., Sparta 

Bacon, A. S. & Sons, Savannah 

Baker & Co., Valdosta , 

Barfield Lbr. Co., Vienna 

Chaucy, V. N., Jesup 

Dougherty, McKey & Co., Valdosta 

Downer Lbr. Co., Valdosta 

Daniel, J. W., Franklin 

East Point Lbr. Co., East Point 

Farrar Lbr. Co., Bainbridge 

Franklin, H. M. & Co., Tennille 

Harrell, N. E., Pearson 

Mclntyre, Arch, Ousley 

Mason Lbr. Co., Ochlochnee 

Owens, A. J., Canon 

Pierce, W. E., Edison 

Pineora Mfg. Co., Pineora 

Shiner, J. B., Poulan 

Superior Pine Products, Fargo 

Warnock, D. F., Tarrytown 



19 



SHINGLES— Continued 
Wilder Lbr. Co., Tifton 
Williams, Homer, Thomasville 
Willingham-Tift Lbr. Co., Atlanta 
Woodward Lbr. Co., Augusta 
Zuber, Jno. W., Atlanta 

SHOOKS: 
Elberta Box Co., Bainbridge 
Hightower Box & Tank Co., Atlanta 
Jeffreys & McElratb Mfg. Co., Macon 
O'Neill Lbr. & Box Mfg. Co., Rome 
Pierpont Mfg. Co., Savannah 
Union Box Mfg. Co., Atlanta 

TANKS: 
Hightower Box & Tank Co., Atlanta 
Quitman Cooperage Co., Quitman 

TRUCKS, TRUCK BODIES: 
Columbus Truck & Supply Mfg. Co., 

Columbus 
Fairbanks: Co., Rome 

Georgia Car & Locomotive Co., Atlanta 
Miller, A. C. & Co., Atlanta 
Williams Mfg. Co., Macon 
Yancey Brothers, Atlanta 



VENEER: 
Augusta Veneer Co., Augusta 
Brown, Robt. A., Raymond 
Clark Veneer Co., R. C, Atlanta 
Crown Mountain Veneer Co., Dahlonega 
Dublin Veneer & Package Co., Brunswick 
Georgia Veneer & Package Co., Brunswick 
Glyck Veneer & Lbr. Co., Macon 
Houston Mfg. Co., Perry 
Lovelace-Brown Lbr. Co., Thomson 
Midville Veneer Co., Midville 
Reynolds Bros. Lbr. Co., Albany 
Pierpont Mfg. Co., Savannah 
Southern Crate & Veneer Co., Macon 
Wadley Veneer & Basket Co., Wadley 
Peerless Basket Co., Cuthbert 

WAGONS: 
Hancock Wagon Co., Culverton 
Karwisch, J. M., Wagon Works, Atlanta 
Sanders, John D., Waynesboro 
Tarwood Mfg. & Supply Co., Dublin 
White Hickory Wagon Mfg. Co., East 

Point 
Williams Mfg. Co., Macon 

WOODEN WARE: 
Atlanta Woodenware Co., Atlanta 



SAW MILL OPERATORS OF GEORGIA 



ACWORTH, Cobb County 
Mills Lbr. Co. of Ga., Inc. 

AD EL, Cook County 
Adel Mfg. Co. 

AILEY, Montgomery County 
Thompson, H. V. & Bros. 

ALAMO, Wheeler County 
Adams, J. W. 
Clark, W. M. & Co. 

ALBANY, Dougherty County 
Allen Brothers Lbr. Co. 
General Lbr. Co. 
Home Builders Lbr. & Supply Co. 
Clancy Lbr. Co. 
Reynolds Bros. Lbr. Co. 

ALSTON, Montgomery County 
Daniel, J. Fred & Sons 
McArthur, J. J. 
Sharpe, J. S. 

AMERICUS, Sumter County 
Lovelace, T. B., Lbr. Co. 

AMSTERDAM, Decatur Conuty 
Gragg Lbr. Co. 

ARGYLE, Clinch County 
Garrant Lbr. Co. 



ASHBURN, Turner County 
Carter, C. W. 
Thrasher, C. E. 

ATHENS, Clarke County 
Athens Saw & Planing Mill 

ATLANTA, Fulton County 
Cleveland-Oconee Lbr. Co. 

AUGUSTA, Richmond County 
Augusta Hardwood Co. 
Georgia Hardwood Lbr. Co. 
Richmond Lbr. Co. 
Woodward Lbr. Co. 

BAINBRIDGE, Decatur County 
Battle & Hodges 
Carr, A. S. Co. 

BANNING, Carroll County 
Hanson, J. R. 

BARNESVILLE, Lamar County 
Barnesville Planing Mill Co. 
Lavender & Brown 
Milner Lbr. Co. 

BARTOW, Jefferson County 
Brown, T. S. 
Hall, J. M. 
Salter & Evans 



20 



BAXLEY, Appling County 
Baxley Planing Mill 
Miles, D. P. 
Sellers, E. W. 
Williams, N. F. 

BLACKSHEAR, Pierce County 
Johnson, A. M. 
Woodall, C. C. Lbr. Co. 

BLAKELY, Early County 
Bailey, J. F. & Son 
Hall, W. A. Lbr. Co. 
Hunt, Washington & Hunt 
Stuckey, Chas. 

BLUFFTON, Clay County 
Rambo, M. 

BOSTON, Thomas County 
Sherrod, J. H. & Sons 

BROOKLET, Bulloch County 
Altman, W. R. Lumber Co. 
Howard, J. R. 
Shear-wood Lbr. Co. 

BROOKLYN, Stewart County 
Bell-Tate Lbr. Co. 

BROOKS, Fayette County 
Cooper Bros. 
Lunsford, J. A. 

BROXTON, Coffee County 
Sapp, J. L. 

BRUNSWICK, Glynn County 
Brunswick Timber Co. 
Haddock, Tomlinson Co. 
Harrington, W. D. 

BUCHANAN, Haralson County 
Davis, W. E. & Son 

BUENA VISTA, Marion County 
Alexander & Burgin Lbr. Co. 

BUTLER, Taylor County 
Payne, W. A. 

BYRON, Peach County 
Cline, G. P. 

CAIRO, Grady County 
McCollom, P. J. 
Thomas- Robinson Lbr. Co. 

CALHOUN, Gordon County 
Barton, H. C. 
Calhoun Lbr. Co. 
David, A. B. 
Strain, J. A. 

CAMILLA, Mitchell County 
Goulden, B. H. 
Manry, B. F. 



CANON, Franklin County 
Owens, A. J. 

CARNESVILLE, Franklin County 
Ginn Mfg. Co. 

CARTERSVILLE, Bartow County 
Shaw, L. F. & Sons Co. 
Smith Lbr. Co. 

CATAULA, Harris County 
Alexander Bros. Lbr. Co. 

CHARLES, Stewart County 
Alexander & Bland Lbr. Co. 

CHATSWORTH, Murray County 
Cohutta Lumber Co. 
Empire Talc & Lbr. Co. 

CHIPLEY, Harris County 
Chambers, J. M. 
Champion, F. L. 
Floyd, L. E. 
Williams, John W. 

CLARKESVILLE, Habersham County 
Church, Geo. 

CLAYTON, Rabun County 
Bleckley, James E. 
Mitchell, L. T. 
Mozely, John 

COLUMBUS, Muscogee County 
H. Dixon Smith, Inc. 

COGDELL, Clinch County 
Timber Products Co. 

COLQUITT, Miller County 
Wilkin, P. E. 

CONCORD, Pike County 
Oxford, H. E. 

CORDELE, Crisp County 
Cordele Sash, Door & Lbr. Co. 

COUNCIL, Clinch County 
Council Lbr. Co. 

COVINGTON, Newton County 
Campbell Lbr. Co. 

CRAWFORDVILLE, Taliaferro County 
Flynt-Golucke Lbr. Co. 

CUSSETA, Chattahoochee County 
Burgin Lbr. Co. 

CUTHBERT, Randolph County 
King Lbr. Co. 
Surles, R. E. 

DACULA, Gwinnett County 
Pharr, G. F. 



21 



DAHLONEGA, Lumpkin County 
Hightower, W. J. & Son 
Jarrad, J. C. & Bro. 

DALLAS, Paulding County 
Cochran, John L. Lbr. Co. 
Phillips, John 
Willis, D. F. 

DALTON, Whitfield County 
Brooker Lumber Co. 
Strain, E. E. 

DAMASCUS, Early County 
Rose- Mary Lbr. Co. 

DANIELSVILLE, Madison County 
Barrett, E. B. 
Rogers, B. F. 

DANVILLE, Twiggs County 
Danville Lbr. Co. 

DARIEN, Mcintosh County 
Altamaha Lbr. Co. 

DAVISBORO, Washington County 
Warthen, W. B. 

DAWSON, Terrell County 
Rowland, D. H. Lbr. Mills 
Shields & Geise Lbr. Co. 

DECATUR, DeKalb County 
Hierston, W. T. 
Ozmar, J. H. 

DESOTO, Sumter County 
Moore Lbr. Co. 

DEVEREAUX, Hancock County 
Grooms, M. M. Lbr. Co. 

DOLES, Worth County 
Champion, J. C. 

DOUGLAS, Coffee County 
Pat Darby Lbr. Co., Inc 

DUBLIN, Laurens County 
Dublin Sash & Door Co. 
Gettys, J. M. Lbr. Co. 

EASTMAN, Dodge County 
Dodge County Lbr. Co. 

EATONTON, Putnam County 
Carpenter Lbr. Co. 

EDISON, Calhoun County 
Pierce, W. E. 
Turman Lbr. Co. 

EGYPT, Effingham County 
Roundtree, W. P. 
Standard Lbr. Co. 



ELLAVILLE, Schley County 
Alexander, A. C. Lbr. Co. 
Drew, J. A. 
Hart, H. A. 
Smith Bros. 
Tidd Bros. 
Wald, W. A. 
Smith & Wall 

ELLERSLIE, Harris County 
Alexander Bros. Lbr. Co. 

ELLIJAY, Gilmer County 
Henson Bros. & Barnes 
Shippen Hardwood Lbr. Co. 

ETON, Murray County 
Lefurgey, J. J. 

FACEVILLE, Decatur County 
Hancock Lbr. Co. 

FAIRMOUNT, Gordon County 
Fairmount Lbr. Co. 
Lowe, J. I. 

FARGO, Clinch County 
Superior Pine Products Co. 

FAYETTEVILLE, Fayette County 
Blalock Lbr. Co. 
Cox, W. F. 
Graves, Ernest 
Redwine Bros. 

FOLKSTON, Charlton County 
Gowen, A. G. 
Johnson, J. H. 

FORSYTH, Monroe County 
Hardin Lbr. Co. 

FORTSON, Muscogee County 
Fortson Lbr. Co. 
Franklin & Carey Lbr. Co. 

FRANKLIN, Heard County 
Daniel, J. W. 
Johnson & Hammond 
Norwood, J. E. 
Spradling, J. W. & Sons 

GAINESVILLE, Hall County 
Hammond, V. L. 
North Georgia Lbr. Co. 

GARDNERS, Washington County 
Cleveland-Oconee Lbr. Co. 

GIBSON, Glascock County 
Bowden- Hooks Lbr. Co. 

GIRARD, Burke County 
Mobley Bros. 

GLENNVILLE, Tattnall County 
Burns, T. F. 
Phillips, L. & Bros. 
Tootle, G. W. 



22 



KITE, Johnson County 
Meeks, W. B. 

LAFAYETTE, Walker County 
Clements & Quillian 
Mize, R. F. & Son 
Ponder, J. R. 
Rea, J. H. B. 

LAGRANGE, Troup County 
Askew, W. S. Co. 

LAKE PARK, Lowndes County 
Ivers, C. H. & Son 
Watts & Co. 

LAWRENCEVILLE, Gwinnett County 
Jackson, C. M. 
Jackson, C. P. 

LEARY, Calhoun County 
Tyson & Stubbs 

LILLY, Dooly County 
Cox, J. E. 
McCormick, D. A. 

LINCOLNTON, Lincoln County 
Bunch & Harnesberger 
Lincoln Lbr. Co. 
Wilkinson, J. G. 

LIZELLA, Bibb County 
Carswell, M. C. 
Marshall, C. E. 
Marshall, W. J. 
Van Valkenburg, A. B. 
Whittle & Fackler 

LITHONIA, DeKalb County 
Johnson, J. C.'s Sons 

LOCO, Lincoln County 
Taylor, Clyde H. 

LOGANVILLE, Walton County 
Cooper, M. E. 

LOUISVILLE, Jefferson County 
Jones, S. E. 
Kelly, T. B. Lbr. Co. 

LOVEJOY STATION, Clayton County 
Dickson, J. S. 

LUDOWICI, Long County 
Bladen Tie & Lbr. Co. 
Jones, C. D. 

LUMBER CITY, Telfair County 
Rush, J. H. 

LUMPKIN, Stewart County 
Alexander & Bland Lbr. Co. 
Lawson, W. R. & Bro. 



GLENWOOD, Wheeler County 
Browning, J. M. 
Pearson Hardwood Flooring Co. 
Rivers & Jones 

GRAHAM, Appling County 
Ham, W. B. 

GRANTVILLE, Coweta County 
Grantville Oil Mill 

GROVETOWN, Columbia County 
Dorn, R. B. 

HAMILTON, Harris County 
Pine Mountain Lbr. Co. 

HAPEVILLE, Fulton County 
Evans- Inman Lbr. Co. 

HARLEM, Columbia County 
Harlem Mfg. Co. 

HARTWELL, Hart County 
Cobb, J. A., Saw Mill Co. 

HATCHER, Quitman County 
Bland, D. G. Lbr. Co. 

HAWKINSVILLE, Pulaski County 
Grand Bay Lbr. Co. 
Hawkinsville Lbr. & Mfg. Co. 
Lick Creek Lbr. Co. 
Warren & DuPre 

HELEN, White County 
Morse Bros. Lbr. Co. 

HILLSBORO, Jasper County 
White Lbr. Co. 

HOBOKEN, Brantley County 
Newton & Jones 

JACKSONVILLE, Telfair County 
Williams, M. & C. W. 

JERSEY, Walton County 
Harris, J. T. 
Wiley, B. A. 

JESUP, Wayne County 
Chauncy, V. N. 
Garbutt Lbr. Co. 

JONESBORO, Clayton County 
Berry Bros. 

JULIA, Stewart County 
Union Lbr. Co. 

JUNCTION CITY, Talbot County 
Callier, N. V. 

JUNIPER, Marion County 
Rogers, A. N. 



23 



MORVEN, Brooks County 
Elliott Lumber Co. 

MOULTRIE, Colquitt County 
Ladson Lbr. Co. 
Morris Brothers 

MT. VERNON, Montgomery County 
Johnson, W. A. 

NEWNAN, Coweta County 
R. D. Cole Mfg. Co. 

NORCROSS, Gwinnett County 
Flowers, W. D. 
Gastley, C. E. 
Green, J. C. 
Litsch, W. R. 

OAKFIELD, Worth County 
Nation, J. A. 

OCHLOCHNEE, Thomas County 
Mason Lumber Co. 

OCILLA, Irwin County 
Willis Lbr. Co. 

OCONEE, Washington County 
Ennes, E. N. 
Hodges, C. M. & Sons 

ODESSADALE, Meriwether County 
Glanton, W. A. 

ODUM, Wayne County 
Brentwood Lbr. Co. 
Thompson Bros. 
Warren, R. E. 

OFFERMAN, Pierce County 
Thomas, R. J. 

OGEECHEE, Screven County 
Fetty, I. H. 

OGLETHORPE, Macon County 
Cobb Lbr. Co. 
Flint Lbr. Co. 

OLIVER, Screven County 
Barber, W. W. 
Colson, J. L. & Son 

OXFORD, Newton County 
Dial, C. B. 

PELHAM, Mitchell County 
Whaley, A. 

PEMBROKE, Bryan County 
Bowen, L. S. 
Parrish, W. W. 

PINEORA, Effingham County 
Pineora Mfg. Co. 



LUXOMNI, Gwinnett County 
Hannah, A. S. 
Pearson, J. H. 

McINTYRE, Wilkinson County 
Hall, J. M. Lbr. Co. 

McRAE, Telfair County 
Krumrine, J. H. C. 

MACON, Bibb County 
Case-Fowler Lbr. Co. 
Chambers Lbr. Co. 
Davis-Richardson Lbr. Co. 
Georgia Hardwood Co. 
James & Kingman Lbr. Co. 
Massee & Felton Lbr. Co. 
Richardson Lbr. Co. 
Wainwright- Young Lbr. Co. 

MADISON, Morgan County 
Atkinson, W. W. 
Mallory, T. A. 
Mason Lbr. Co. 

MANASSAS, Tattnall County 
Holland, John L. 

MARSHALLVILLE, Macon County 
Goodwin, S. B. 

MATTHEWS, Jefferson County 
Gay, W. S. 
Pennington, A. F. 

MAYSVILLE, Banks County 
Bacon Milling Co. 

METASVILLE, Wilkes County 
Lovelace, T. B. Lbr. Co. 

METTER, Candler County 
Brannen, I. A. & J. L. 

MIDVILLE, Burke County 
Fry, L. B. Lbr. Co. 
Higdon Lbr. Co. 
Wray-Joyner Co. 

MILLEDGEVILLE, Baldwin County 
Bland Lbr. Co. 
Central Georgia Lbr. Co. 
dooms. M. M. 

MILLEN, Jenkins County 
Aaron, T. W. 
Millen Lbr. Co. 
Turner Lbr. Co. 

MILNER, Lamar County 
Chappel, A. H. 

MONROE, Walton County 
Monroe Lbr. Co. 

MONTICELLO, Jasper County 
Walker, J. N. 



24 



POWDER SPRINGS, Cobb County 
Baynton, R. A. 
Florence, W. L. 
Smith, J. F. 

PRESTON, Webster County 

Cagle, W. W. 
Montgomery, G. A. 
Patterson & Davis 
Rees, J. O. & Sons 
Sappington A. Averett 

QUITMAN, Brooks County 
Shore, F. M. & Co. 
South Georgia Lbr. Co. 

RANGER, Gordon County 
Earnest, G. C. 



RESACA, Gordon County 
Resaca Lbr. Co. 

REYNOLDS, Taylor County 
Saunders & Sealey 

RICHLAND, Stewart County 
Alexander & Bland 
Bell Lbr. Co. 
Dudley Lbr. Co. 

RINGGOLD, Catoosa County 
Catoosa Lbr. Co. 
Clark, J. H. 
Combs, C. M. 
Creswell, W. O. 
Embesson, T. S. 
Hulsey & Combs 
Vosburg, C. C. 

ROBERTA, Crawford County 
Starnes, W. C. 

ROCKMART, Polk County 
Davenport Bros. 
Ezell, J. C. 

ROSWELL, Cobb County 
Maxwell, J. T. 

ST. MARYS, Camden County 
Lang, Walter 

SANDERSVILLE, Washington County 
Harrison, T. I. 
Red Bird Lbr. Co. 
Rough Diamond Lbr. Co. 

SAVANNAH, Chatham County 
Forester-Cunningham Lbr. Co. 
Godley-Green Lbr. Co. 
Liberty Lbr. Co. 
Mead & Manucy 
Reynolds & Manley Co. 
Savannah River Lbr. Co. 
Smith, W. W. Lbr. Co. 
Southern Lbr. Co. 
Stovall, W. I. 



SCOTLAND, Telfair County 
Wilks Brothers 

SENOIA, Coweta County 
Nations, T. D. 

SHARON, Taliaferro County 
Flynt & Moore 

SHELLMAN, Randolph County 
Church-Robinett Lbr. Co. 

SILOAM, Green County 
Boswell, E. T., Co. 

SMITHVILLE, Lee County 
Fite, J. B. 
Lee County Lbr. Co. 

SOPERTON, Trutlen County 
Fowler, James 

SPARKS, Cook County 
Stutts & Daugherty 

SPARTA, Hancock County 
Archer, J. M. 
Ethridge Lbr. Co. 

STATESBORO, Bulloch County 
Howard, Arthur 

STEVENS POTTERY, Baldwin County 
Weaver, W. T. 

STILSON, Bulloch County 
Brown-Bland Lbr. Co. 
Zickgraf Lbr. Co. 

SUMMERVILLE, Chattooga County 
Edwards, Daniel 

SUWANEE, Gwinnett County 
Jones, Gus 

SWAINSBORO, Emanuel County 
Lamb, T. D. 
Swainsboro Lbr. Co. 

SYLVANIA, Screven County 
Brantley, W. L. 
Mallory Bros. 
Perkins, M. & H. 
Sylvania Lbr. Co. 
United Lbr. & Timber Co. 
White, J. C. 

SYLVESTER, Worth County 
Simmerly & Lawrence 

TALBOTTON, Talbot County 
Carlisle, J. B. 
Hampton Lbr. Co. 
Southmont Mfg. Co. 



25 



TALKING ROCK, Pickens County 
Talking Rock Mfg. Co. 

THOMASTON, Upson County 
Garner, Green & Matthews 
Kind and Thurston 
Perkins, J. T. 

THOMASVILLE, Thomas County 
Kirby Planing Mill Co. 
Houston Lbr. & Tie Co. 
McCallum, P. J. Co. 
Turner, J. L. Co. 
Upchurch, W. J. 
Williams, Homer 

THOMSON, McDuffie County 
Bowden, Paul A. 
Bowden-Kunnes Lbr. Co. 
Knox Lbr. Co. 
Lovelace- Brown Lbr. Co. 

TIFTON, Tift County 
Coarsey Lbr. Co. 
Postell Lbr. Co. 

TIGNALL, Wilkes County 
Savannah Valley Lbr. Co. 
Seymour, J. W. 

TOOMSBORO, Wilkinson County 
Lord, J. T., Jr. 
Lovelace- Eubanks Lbr. Co. 

TRENTON, Dade County 
Morrison & Pace 

UNADILLA, Dooly County 
King Lbr. & Oil Co. 

UVALDA, Montgomery County 
Johnson, W. A. 
McArthur, J. J. 

VALDOSTA, Lowndes County 
Baker & Co. 
Bray, J. N., Lbr. Co. 
Downer Lbr. Co. 
Jackson Bros., Lbr. Co. 

VILLA RICA, Carroll County 
Henslee, A. 
Neal & Manor 

WADLEY, Jefferson County 
Middle Georgia Lbr. Co. 
Warm Springs Planing Mill 

WARRENTON, Warren County 
Bostonville Planing Mill Co. 
McBrayer Lbr. Co. 
Shelton, W. T. 
Thompson, E. J. 

WARSAW, Mcintosh County 
Warsaw Lbr. Co. 



WARTHEN, Washington County 
Rachel, A. P. & Bro. 
Warthen Lbr. Co. 

WARWICK, Worth County 
Whitfield, L. C. 

WASHINGTON, Wilkes County 
Mauney, Frank L. 
Pope Lbr. Co. 
Scott-Strother Lbr. Co. 
Washington Mfg. Co. 

WAVERLY HALL, Harris County 
Waverly Hall Lbr. Co. 

WAYNESBORO, Burke County 
Claxton, R. L. 
Green Bros. 
Waynesboro Planing Mill 

WAYSIDE, Jones County 
Wood, J. D. 

WEST POINT, Troup County 
Batson-Cook Co. 

WESTON, Webster County 
Weston Lbr. Co. 

WHITE, Bartow County 
Starr, J. W., & Sons 

WHITE PLAINS, Green County 
Taylor Bros. 

WHITESBURG, Carroll County 
Duncan, C. A. 
Edgeworth, W. F. 

WILLACOOCHEE, Atkinson County 
Doster & Ladson 

WINDER, Barrow County 
Jones, W. J. 
Millsaps, G. S. 

WOODSTOCK, Cherokee County 
Poor, A. F. 

WOODVILLE, Green County 
Moody, C. G. 

WRENS, Jefferson County 
Wren Bros. 
Wren, R. A. 

WRIGHTSVILLE, Johnson County 
Jackson, M. A. 
Keel Lbr. Co. 
Lovett, W. H., Lbr. Co. 
Rowland, R. H. 
Smith, R. H. 
Sumner, E. J. 

YATESVILLE, Upson County 
Brown, W. M. 



26 



GEORGIA LUMBER, MILLWORK AND BUILDING 
MATERIAL DEALERS 



ACWORTH 
Carruth Gin and Lbr. 
McClure & Fowler 



Co. 



ADAIRSVILLE 

Cedar Springs Mfg. Co. 
Shaw Lbr. Co. 



ALBANY 

Hodges Builders Supply Co. 
Home Builders Supply Co. 
The Ross Co. 
W. A. Stokes 

AMERICUS 

Americus Construction Co. 
W. W. McNeill Lbr. Co. 
J. W. Shiver 

ASHBURN 
C. E. Thrasher 

ATLANTA 

Addison- Rudesal 

Atlanta Aggregate Co. 

Atlanta Oak Flooring Co. 

Campbell Coal Co. 

Carolina Portland Cement Co. 

Cleveland- Oconee Lbr. Co. 

Cromer & Thornton, Inc. 

Deckner-Willingham 

DeJarnette Supply Co. 

W. B. Disbro Lbr. Co. 

East Side Coal & Lbr. Co. 

Gresham Mfg. Co. 

Dan Klein & Son 

V. H. Kreigshaber & Son 

Imperial Pine Corporation 

Frank G. Lake 

Marbut-Williams Lbr. Co. 

Miller Lbr. Co. 

Pattillo Lbr. Co. 

Patterson Lbr. Co. 

Phoenix Planing Mill 

Randall Bros., Inc. 

Smith & Simpson Lbr. Co. 

J. W. Starr & Son 

A. C. Walters 

E. G. Walton 

West Lbr. Co. 

Williams Bros. Lbr. 

Williams- Flynt Lbr. Co. 

Willingham-Tift Lbr. Co. 

Womack Lime & Cement Co. 



ATHENS 
Carter- Moss Lbr. 
The Dozier Co. 
R. L. Moss Mfg. Co. 



Co. 



AUGUSTA 

Augusta Building Supply Co. 

Augusta Lbr. Co. 

Burum Co. 

Perkins Mfg. Co. 

D. Slusky & Son 

Whaley Bros. 

Woodward Lbr. Co. 

Youngblood Builders Supply Co. 

AUSTELL 
R. M. Brown 

BALL GROUND 
Wheeler Lbr. Co. 

BAGDAD 
Bagdad Land & Lbr. Co. 

BAINBRIDGE 
J. G. McKenzie 
Ramsey- Wheeler Co. 

BAXLEY 
R. E. Jarman & Sons 

BLACKSHEAR 
J. B. Truett Co. 

BLAKELY 
Hall Lbr. Co. 

BLUE RIDGE 
M. K. McKinney 

BOSTON 
Boston Lbr. Co. 

BRASELTON 
Braselton Improvement Co. 

BREMEN 
E. C. Wilson 
J. W. Wood 

BRENTWOOD 
Brentwood Lbr. Co. 

BRUNSWICK 
Bladen Tie & Lbr. Co. 
Brunswick Lbr. & Supply Co. 
Brunswick Peninsula Co. 
Coney & Parker Co. 
Glynn Lbr. Co. 
Lang Planing Mill 
Lumber Supply Co. 

BUFORD 
Bona Allen, Inc. 
W. G. Deaton 
L. E. Strickland 



27 



CALHOUN 
Calhoun Lbr. Co. 

CANTON 
Jones Mercantile Co. 

CARROLLTON 
Carrollton Hardware Co. 
J. L. Kaylor 
D. F. New 

CARTERSVILLE 
Knight Mercantile Co. 
Smith Lbr. Co. 

CASSANDRA 
Clark & Tucker 

CEDARTOWN 
J. W. Dingier 
Hightower Lbr. & Supply Co. 

CHAMBLEE 

Chestnut & Nash 

CHATSWORTH 
Empire Talc & Lbr. Co. 

CLARKESVILLE 
W. A. Church 
Hill Planing Mill Co. 

CLAYTON 
P. A. Hunter 

COLLEGE PARK 
College Park Supply Co. 
Creel Lbr. Co. 

COLUMBUS 
Butts Lbr. Co. 
Carter Lbr. Co. 
Cooper Lbr. Co. 
Dudley Sash & Door Co. 
Harvey Lbr. Co. 
Williams Lbr. Co. 

COMER 
Gholseton Bros. 

COMMERCE 
Commerce Brick & Lbr. Co. 

CONYERS 
W. R. Still 

CORDELE 
Cordele Sash & Door Co. 
Crisp Lbr. Co. 

CORNELIA 
Cornelia Hardware Co. 
Callaway & Hopper 
Holbrook Hardware Co. 



COVINGTON 
S. H. Adams 

CRAWFORDVILLE 

C. H. Golucke & Son 

CUTHBERT 
Cuthbert Coal & Wood Co. 

DALLAS 
Dallas Milling Co. 
Lee Hardware Co. 

DALTON 
Acme Lbr. Co. 
Cherokee Mfg. Co. 
Farrar Lbr. Co. 

DAWSON 
Dawson Variety Works 

D. H. Rowland & Son 
Shields-Geise Lbr. Co. 

DECATUR 

DeKalb Supply Co. 

DOUGLAS 
Pat Darby Lbr. Co. 

DOUGLASVILLE 
W. C. Abercrombie 
J. W. House & Sons 

DUBLIN 
Dublin Sash & Door Co. 
J. M. Gettys Lbr. Co. 

E. B. Mackey Lbr. Co. 
McDaniel & Mackey 

DULUTH 
I. M. Suddeth 

EASTMAN 
Nicholson Lbr. Co. 

EAST POINT 
East Point Lbr. Co. 

EATONTON 
C. M. Hudson 

EDISON 
W. E. Pierce 

ELBERTON 

Herndon & Smith 

ELLA GAP 
Davis Brothers 

EASTPORT 
Brooks-Scanlon Corporation 

FAIRBURN 
Johnson & Co. 



28 



FARMINGTON 
H. T. Murrow 

FAYETTEVILLE 
Redwine Brothers 

FITZGERALD 
Standard Supply Co. 

FORSYTH 
Forsyth Coal & Lbr. Co. 
Webb Lbr. Co. 

FORT GAINES 
Kellingsworth Hardware Co. 
Ross Hardware Co. 
Georgia Basket & Lbr. Co. 

GAINESVILLE 

C. M. Chambers 

FORT VALLEY 
Davis- Washington Co. 

GAY 

Gay & Keith 

GEORGETOWN 
Pine Lbr. Co. 

GRANTVJLLE 
Grantville Lbr. Co. 

GREENSBORO 
McCommons-Thompson Boswell Co. 

GREENVILLE 
Builders Supply Co. 

GRIFFIN 
Gresham Mfg. Co. 
Griffin Lbr. Co. 
Newton Coal & Lbr. Co. 
Robt. Wheaton & Sons 

HAMPTON 
Henderson Coal & Lbr. Co. 

HARTWELL 

D. C. Alford 

J. W. Temple & Sons 

HAWKINSVILLE 
W. D. McEachern 

HELEN 
Morse Bros. Lbr. Co. 

HOGANSVILLE 
Johnson Lbr. Co. 

HOWARD 
J. J. & C. H. Edwards 



JACKSON 
H. T. Gilmore 
W. P. Nutt 

JEFFERSONVILLE 
Whitaker Lbr. Co. 

JONESBORO 
W. H. Turnipseed 

LAFAYETTE 
Chas. demons 
John Howard 

LaFayette Coal & Wholesale Co. 
E. A. Puryear 
Quillian & demons 

LAGRANGE 

Daniel Lbr. Co. 

LaGrange Lbr. & Supply Co. 

LAVONIA 
Harbin Bros. 
L. O. Mauldin 

LAWRENCEVILLE 
E. B. Rockmore 

LILLY 
Ricks Lbr. Co. 

LITHIA SPRINGS 
P. H. Winn 

LITHONIA 
A. J. Almand & Co. 

LOCUST GROVE 
R. H. & M. M. Brown 
A. G. Combs 

LOGANSVILLE 
Logansville Lbr. Co. 

MACON 
Bibb Lbr. Co. 
Builders Lbr. Co. 
T. C. Burke, Inc. 
Case- Fowler Lbr. Co. 
Central City Lbr. Co. 
Central Sash & Door Co. 
Chambers Lbr. Co. 
E. J. Hancock 
James Lbr. Co. 
Macon Supply Co. 
J. W. McCook Lbr. Co. 
C. J. Molton Lbr. Co. 
The Ross Co. 
Willingham Sash & Door Co. 

MADISON 
Farmers Hardware Co. 

MANCHESTER 
J. P. Corley Lbr. Co. 



29 



MANSFIELD 
Mansfield Lbr. Co. 

MARIETTA 
Black Builders Supply Co. 
McNeel Lbr. Co. 
Stephens Lbr. Co. 

MAXEYS 
A. T. Brightwell & Sons 

McDONOUGH 
Berry Lbr. Co. 
Carmichael Lbr. & Coal Co. 
Planters Warehouse & Lbr. Co. 

METTER 
Metter Lbr. Co. 

MIDVILLE 
M. D. Jones 

MILLEDGEVILLE 

Bland Lbr. Co. 
Fowler- Flemister, Inc. 

MILLEN 
Builders Supply Co. 

MINERAL BLUFF 
R. W. Nichols 

MONROE 
Langston Lbr. Co. 
W. H. Nunnally 
McKenzie Lbr. & Supply Co. 

MONTICELLO 
R. L. Marsh 
Builders Supply Co. 

MORELAND 
Cureton-Cole Co. 

MOULTRIE 
Colquitt Lbr. Co. 
Davis-Jenkins & Sons 
Ladson Lbr. Co. 
Johnson- Battle Lbr. Co. 

OCILLA 
C. O. Betts 

OCHLOCHNEE 
Tyson Lbr. Co. 

PALMETTO 
F. H. Redwine Co. 

PELHAM 
Whaley Bros. 

PERRY 
Perry Warehouse Co. 

POWDER SPRINGS 
M. A. J. Landers 



QUITMAN 
King Lbr. & Remilling Co. 
South Georgia Lbr. Co. 

RANGER 
G. C. Earnest 

RINGGOLD 
J. H. Clark 

ROCKMART 
Davenport Brothers 

ROME 
Chenoweth-Holder Lbr. Co. 
H. J. Keown Lbr. Co. 
Marshall Mfg. Co. 
O'Neill Lbr. & Box Mfg. Co. 

ROSWELL 
I. M. Roberts 

ROYSTON 
Harbin Bros. 

SANDERSVILLE 
C. A. Adams 
Lang's Variety Works 

SASSER 
J. M. Barner 

SAVANNAH 

A. S. Bacon & Sons 
Atlantic Log & Export Co. 
W. J. Bremer 
Burns & Harmon 
Bright-.Brooks Lbr. Co. 
John G. Butler Co. 
Forest Purchasing Co. 
General Building Supply Co. 
J. L. Highsmith 
Neal & Blun Co. 
Penn Waller Lbr. Co. 
Quarterman & Ellis 
Savannah Planing Mill 
Savannah River Lbr. Co. 
Stevens Supply Co. 
Dan Shehan 
Julian A. Tison's Sons 

SOCIAL CIRCLE 
Wallace- Cowan Lbr. Co. 

SPARTA 
Sparta Lbr. Co. 

STATHAM 
J .S. Holliday 

STOCKBRIDGE 
J. W. Patillo 

SWAINSBORO 
J. R. Coleman 
J. W. & C. I. Hall 



30 



SYLVANIA 
Jenkins Mfg. Co. 
M. & H. Perkins 

SYLVESTER 
Hillhouse Hardware Co. 
Shell Lbr. Co. 

TALBOTTON 
Jordan Supply Co. 

TALKING ROCK 
L. A. Silver 

TALLULAH LODGE 
J. E. Harvey 

THOMASTON 
Alvan Nelson Lbr. Co. 
Paul Johnston Lbr. Co. 
Thomaston Lbr. Co. 

THOMASVILLE 
W. E. Beverly 
L. F. Driver & Co. 
Kirby Planing Mill 
Thomasville Variety Works 

THOMSON 
Knox Hatcher Lbr. Co. 
Thomson Builders Supply Co. 

TIFTON 
Goodman Golden Lbr. Co. 
Wilder Lbr. Co. 

TOCCOA 
Ramsey- Martin Hardware Co. 

UNION CITY 
Union City Lbr. Co. 

UNION POINT 
Stewart & Ruthford 

VALDOSTA 
The J. N. Bray Co. 
Briggs Hardware Co. 
Eva Lbr. Co. 
Ga. Fla. Lbr. Co. 
Georgia Lbr. & Supply Co. 



Jackson Bros. 

Larsen & Forbes Hardware Co. 

Nolan Lbr. Co. 

Paine Hardware Co. 

Stump Bros. 

Strickland Hardware Co. 

Valdosta Builders Supply Co. 

VIDALIA 
J. T. Ragan & Co. 

VIENNA 
J. B. Peavy 

VILLA RICA 
O. B. Camp 
Cleghorn Bros. 

WARRENTON 
F. L. Howell 
D. L. Stone 

WASHINGTON 

Washington Mfg. Co. 

WATKINSVILLE 
Nicholson & Ward 

WAVERLY HALL 
Pitts Lbr. Co. 

WAYCROSS 
Enterprise Mfg. Co. 

WAYNESBORO 
Builders Supply Co. 
Neely Builders Supply Co. 

WEST POINT 
West Point Coal & Lbr. Co. 
West Point Iron Works 

WINDER 
New Winder Lbr. Co. 

WOODBURY 
Anthony Lbr. Co. 

ZEBULON 
Tidwell Lbr. Co. 



31 



\b 



May, 1929 



Bulletin 6 



Georgia Forest Service 



B. M. LUFBURROW, State Forester 



Georgia Forest-Parks 

By 

C. A. WHITTLE, Director of Education 
BONNELL H. STONE, Secretary Georgia Forestry Association 




UNJy^RSITY OF GEORGIA 

MAY 2 2 1968 



LIBRARY 



Georgia Forest-Parks 

C. A. Whittle 
Director of Education 

A series of forest-parks in easy reach of centers of Georgia's 
population is a goal that forestry leaders have set up. Already 
two state forest-parks have been established, the Vogel State 
Forest-Park at Neel Gap on Blood Mountain, Union County, 
in North Georgia, and Indian Springs, Butts County in Middle 
Georgia. 

The purpose of a state forest-park is to teach a greater 
knowledge, keener appreciation and better usage of the State's 
greatest natural resource — the forests. A lack of public reali- 
zation of the necessity for forest protection is resulting in an 
annual loss to this State of millions of dollars. This handicap 
can not be overcome until the public is shown how to protect the 
forests. An object lesson is a convincing lesson. Hence, the 
importance of establishing state forest-parks. Where the State 
acts the people take notice. 

A state forest-park stands as a physical declaration by a 
commonwealth on a matter of great public importance — the 
promotion of the wealth producing power of the forests; it is 
an object lesson telling its message so plainly that anyone who 
runs may read; it is a demonstration showing how to protect, 
develop and utilize forest growth; it is one important method 
of making the public "forest minded" and ready to react fa- 
vorably to every forward looking forestry movement — the wel- 
fare of the State requiring it. 

The forests will come back. They only want a fair chance. 
Shall they get it? 

Between the crest of the Blue Ridge Mountains and the tide 
waters of the Atlantic Ocean, Georgia has 163 species of trees 



4 Georgia Forest Service 

— an extraordinary variety. Georgia's pines and hardwoods have 
poured forth a never-ceasing stream of wealth since the days of 
the first settlers, a streaim of wealth that in later years has been 
dwindling. Had good forest management been practiced all 
this while this stream of wealth would have been flowing 
steadily on with volume well maintained. 

Europe learned long ago the value of the forest-park. For 
three hundred years some of the town-owned forests have been 




View of Blood Mountain, at Vogel Forest- Park 



managed so as to yield an annual crop of timber, the revenue 
from which has in some instances not only paid the running 
expenses of the towns but has brought dividends to its citi- 
zens. Think of receiving public funds instead of paying out 
taxes! The experiences of these European towns would indi- 



Georgia Forest-Parks 5 

cate that a series of state forest-parks of proper size in Georgia 
may also eventually become a source of profit — a revenue-pro- 
ducing asset for Georgia. 

In general, the plan of the Georgia system of state forest- 
parks is to have an area sufficiently large for each forest to pro- 
vide a recreation center or park area and also an area for demon- 
strating reforesting, thinning, harvesting, fire control and all 
that goes with right forest management. 




Beautiful waterfall at Vogel Forest-Park 

Vogel Forest-Park 

At present the two state forest-parks are devoted largely 
to recreational purposes, for which both are particularly adapt- 
ed. During the summer and fall of 1928, more than 14,000 
people registered at the Neel Gap Ranger Station of Vogel 



6 Georgia Forest Service 

Forest-Park, with ten foreign countries and forty-two states of 
the Union represented. 

This forest-park at present includes 160 acres, a gift to the 
State of Georgia by a patriotic citizen of Wisconsin, and is situ- 
ated on Blood Mountain at an elevation of about 3,000 feet. 
Through this park runs the Neel Gap Highway, a popular scenic 
highway penetrating one of the most picturesque areas of the 




Scenic approach to Vogel Park — Hard surfaced road 

Southern Appalachians, and providing a convenient route for 
north and south travel. 

At the highest point on this highway the Georgia Forest 
Service maintains ranger's quarters with provisions for the ac- 
commodation of visitors, including lunches and cold drinks. 



Georgia Forest-Parks 

A beautiful waterfall 100 feet high is in the immediate 
vicinity of these headquarters. Leading up from the camp 
an easy trail two miles long, reaches the crest of Blood Moun- 
tain. Here a magnificent panorama greets the eye at every 
point of the compass. To the north are the purple and sap- 
phire mountains extending range after range, broken here and 
there by fertile, peaceful valleys, the glint of rivers and wind- 




Winding highway approaching Vogel Forest-Park 



ing highways. To the east and west the eye is greeted by forest- 
clad mountains tumbled in an irregular but picturesque pano- 
rama. To the south the mountains break into a wide sweep 
of the Piedmont plateau. 

On Blood Mountain a stone tower is to be erected as a me- 
morial to Georgia's world-war soldiers, and dedicated as the 



8 Georgia Forest Service 

American Legion Memorial Tower. This tower is not 
only to stand as a perpetual memorial to heroism, but will serve 
as a watch tower for forest rangers and as a lookout for vis- 
itors. Thus, historic interest will be added to the natural and 
scenic value of Vogel Forest-Park. 

Indian Springs Forest-Park 

In the central part of Georgia, nestling in the rolling, for- 
ested hills of the Piedmont plateau, is the historic Indian 
Springs, famed for its health-giving waters, its historic associ- 
ations and its Indian lore. To this resort flock thousands each 
year, not only from Georgia, but from many other states, seek- 
ing health and recreation. Four hotels provide the chief ac- 
commodations for visitors. A beautiful town adjoins the prop- 
erty. Hard surfaced and other excellent highways center there. 

The Georgia Forest Service was commissioned in 1927 by 
the State to take over and operate this property as a state forest- 
park, the area having been the property of the State since the 
signing of the Indian Treaty of 1802. The condition of the 
property was poor as the result of neglect. Much needed to be 




Automobile Parties at Vogel Forest-Park 



Georgia Forest-Parks 




Vistas and Waterfalls in Vogel Forest-Park 

done to put the buildings and grounds in presentable shape. 
The funds available were too small, but with other funds made 
available from private sources, gratifying progress has been made 
in repairing, in new construction and in beautifying the prop- 
erty. 




Campers at Vogel Forest-Park 







Georgia Forest Service 



Much credit is due to the local woman's club through the 
initiative of which funds have been raised and improvements 
carried on far beyond what otherwise could have been accom- 
plished. In time and with adequate funds the Indian Springs 
Forest-Park will become more and more a recreational center 
of which the state will be proud. 

It is the hope that the present holdings of the state will be 
enlarged so that the Indian Springs Forest-Park will have great- 
er area for demonstrating the recreational and practical value 
of forest lands. 




Ranger's Quarters at Vogel Forest-Park 



General Interest in Forest-Parks Grows 

The interest in state forest-parks in the United States is 
growing. In the last three years 1,820,939 acres have been 
added, making the total area in state forests and state and town 
forest-parks 12,136,945 acres. The states acquiring forest areas 
for the first time since 1925 were Georgia, Delaware and South 
Carolina. The greatest extension in state forest areas during 
the period was the state of Washington which added 1,200,000 
acres. Pennsylvania added 167,788 acres and Michigan 167,- 



Georgia Forest-Parks 1 1 

000 acres. Massachusetts leads in the number of town forests, 
having 80 out of 100 town forests in this country. 

In Europe town forests are numerous. In France 11,000 
out of 35,000 towns or communities own forests, totaling ap- 
proximately 5,000,000 acres. In Germany there are 1,500 




One of Vogel-Park waterfalls 

town-owned forests, 500 of which are reported to pay not only 
all local expenses but return a surplus as a bonus to citizens. 

An Authority's Views On Georgia's Forest-Parks 

Honorable Bonnell H. Stone, a trained and practicing for- 
ester, residing at Blairsville, Ga., has been designated the "Fa- 
ther of Forestry in Georgia." Through his enthusiastic, able 
and aggressive leadership and with the aid of forward-looking 



12 



Georgia Forest Service 




Tourist at Vogel- Forest Park viewing the mountain scenery 



citizens of the state, the Georgia Forestry Association was form- 
ed. As a result of the activities of this organization, the Geor- 
gia Forest Service came into existence with its trained state for- 
ester and his staff, now functioning in promoting forestry in 
the state. 







¥> - 










„ Z*m 










JMl 












r n ■'. .-3- ■„:- 


llUr 


"L, ' ,, 












■WW ' — -, ^^^j 

































Vogel Forest- Park Quarters, where meals are served 



Georgia Forest-Parks 



3 



Mr. Stone is a great believer in the state forest-park as a 
factor in developing public sentiment necessary to the success 
of carrying out a program for the development of the state's 
forest resources. It was largely through his instrumentality that 
Vogel State Forest-Park and Indian Springs Forest-Park have 
been acquired by the Georgia Forest Service. His hopes and 
expectations are that before many years Georgia will have a 




View of Pavilion and Bath House at Indian Springs 



series of forest-parks distributed advantageously over the state, 
teaching by example how to restore and maintain the great 
wealth producing power of Georgia's forest lands. 

It is highly appropriate in this connection to reproduce 
some of the statements which Mr. Stone has made on the sub- 
ject of forest-parks: 

"To the people of Georgia — especially those who are un- 



14 



Georgia Forest Service 



able to afford vacation trips to distant points — a system of 
State Forest-Parks would offer at once a remarkable va- 
riety of free public recreation grounds and a wonderful group 
of demonstration areas for teaching the economic value of for- 
ests and forestry. 

"We may all agree that public ownership of forest lands 
might prove a hinderance to private industry, if it were prob- 




Healing waters flow from the hill — the spring is at the marquet on the left 



able that such a policy could ever place a large enough percent- 
age of the forests under the control of federal, state, county 
and municipal governments. But the possible control of tim- 
ber lands, by all public agencies combined, could perhaps never 
produce timber supplies in sufficient quantity to meet more 
than a limited part of the demands of our great Nation. All 
forestry experts are agreed that the greater part of our forest 
products in America must always be produced on privately 



Georgia Forest-Parks 



15 



owned forest lands. The only excuse for economic forestry is 
to produce lumber and other forest products for the proper use 
of our people. Therefore, one of the greatest values in public 
ownership of forest lands is derived from demonstrational uses 
which should prove profitable examples for the practice of pri- 
vate forestry. 




Summer visitors at Indian Springs 



Georgia's Great Variety of Trees 

"With the one exception of Florida, the State of Georgia 
has within its borders more different kinds of trees than any 
other State in the Union. We are beginning to have new vis- 
ions of the values in young tree growth and the rapid reproduc- 
tion of the many tree species in the State. Famed for her soils 
and climate, Georgia should demonstrate to the world that nat- 
ural resources will be the foundations of future fortunes for 



16 



Georgia Forest Service 



home seekers of the most desirable sort. Profitable farm lands, 
interspersed with shelter-belts of profitable forests, would pre- 
sent a picture in Georgia's oldest agricultural sections which 
would be in great contrast to the present conditions in some 
of our counties where abandoned farms and waste lands are 
an eye-sore. Vast areas of young forests and natural repro- 



si 


f. '« 






IE 

m 


"31 






M^*""* At 




?'■' 


^1 i %-«4 ' '» 

m 1 «WMiLii 1 M 


■N**,, 









Stream and Mill Dam alongside the park at Indian Springs 

duction, under proper methods of administration and protec- 
tion, would present another picture in striking contrast to much 
of our cut-over pine lands of today. 



A Chain of State Forest Parks 

"Georgia has adopted a State Policy of forestry. Then why 
not establish a system of State Forest Preserves which would 
embrace the essential features of profitable forestry and of out- 



Georgia Forest-Parks 



17 



door recreation, under proper supervision and instruction in for- 
estry, wood-craft and camp-craft? 

"To encourage our people to live in the woods, even for a 
short time each year, will mean that a greater love for the 
woods will engender a desire for better forest protection. Cer- 




View from the Eagle Nest Lookout at Indian Springs 

tainly the pride of State ownership in numerous tracts of timber- 
lands, in desirable locations throughout Georgia, would create 
greater interest and public sentiment for better forest manage- 
ment. Many people may never avail themselves of the joys or 
experiences of an overnight camp, but all picnickers and camp- 
ers would appreciate the convenient location and the modern 
comforts of forest-parks and camp-sites provided on a State 



18 



Georgia Forest Service 



Forest Preserve. Each forest preserve would have its public 
accommodations, such as parking spaces, barbecue pits and 
tables, toilets, and perhaps some overnight cabins, as near the 
roads and entrance as possible, thus including the features of a 
forest-park and at the same time preserve the most scenic areas 




Swimming Pool at Indian Springs 



and beauty spots for hikers, students of wild life and nature 
lovers; where the campers who provide their own tents may 
find seclusion, and where some of the forests can be kept in a 
state resembling their original condition. Each acre of a forest 
preserve should be developed for its best use. The convenience 
and pleasure of the public would be largely met on the area 
designated as the forest-park, thereby keeping the inner soli- 
tudes of the forest preserve comparatively undisturbed for en- 
couraging the increase of plant, animal and bird life. 



Georgia Forest-Parks 
Georgia's Progress in Forestry 



19 



"Georgia has made rapid progress in forestry, under the 
Legislative Act of 1925. The Georgia Forest Service is 
charged with the enforcement of the forest fire laws of the 




A fountain of Wisteria in bloom at Indian Springs 



State, but our 22,000,000 acres of privately owned forest lands 
cannot receive the adequate protection necessary until the thou- 
sands of land owners are aroused to their need of co-operative 
protection, and until the general public gives whole-hearted 
support to the slogan — "Grow, Protect, Use Georgia Timber." 
The Georgia Forestry Act also provides for the establishment 
of State Forests, through the acquisition of land by gift, or by 
purchase when the Legislature may provide the necessary funds. 
The State needs a system of forest preserves, from the moun- 



20 Georgia Forest Service 

tains to the sea. Our larger cities should have thousands of 
acres of forests, for both recreational and economic uses, and 
every town of five thousand inhabitants or more should have 
at least a small forest preserve near it. Out-door recreation is 
most desirable on publicly owned lands, and State Forests will 
also encourage a more general protection of all forest lands, but 
we cannot expect to see private forestry and public recreation 
work very well together. 

Valuable Investment 

"The State should own at least ten forest preserves contain- 
ing from 1,000 to 10,000 acres each, or 20 forest preserves 
with a total of 500,000 acres. With sufficient area in each 
State Forest-Park for adequate and economic administration, and 
with a proper distribution of these administrative units, Geor- 
gia would have an ideal system of free public recreation grounds 
within easy reach of all her citizens. On the whole, the sale 
of forest products should more than pay maintenance and pro- 
tection costs from the beginning, and would soon provide neces- 
sary funds for improvements and development work. The big 
profits in good citizenship and demonstrational values would 
not be collected by any one generation, but Georgia would 
grow in greatness from every standpoint as the result of such a 
practical and far-reaching investment." 

Endorsement of Governors Hardman and 
Roosevelt 

It is with gratification that there can be included in this 
bulletin a few words from Hon. L. G. Hardman, Governor 
of Georgia, and the distinguished part-time resident of Georgia, 
Governor Franklin Roosevelt of Albany, New York, and Warm 
Springs, Georgia, in endorsement of the State Forest-Parks. 
These statements have been made in communications to the 
State Forester. 



Georgia Forest-Parks 21 



Governor Hardman's Approval 

"Reforestation, conservation and proper utilization are im- 
portant to the development of forest wealth in Georgia. Forests 
have been and should continue to be one of the state's greatest 
natural resources. We are facing a decline in the output of our 
forests, a much greater decline than would have been had the 
people of Georgia protected their forests from fire and allowed 
nature to bring on a second crop. 

"Our Georgia Forest Service, organized only three years 
ago. is making progress in arousing the State to a greater ap- 
preciation of the value of its forests and how to develop their 
opportunities; it is organizing timber owners for fire protec- 
tion and is carrying on an effective educational campaign. 

"One of the methods being employed is the Forest-Park. 
This seems to be an effective way of arousing the public to an 
appreciation of the forests and is in line with the action of other 
states and other countries. Donations of forest land by public 
spirited citizens for use as state forest-parks where demonstra- 
tions in proper forest management may be practiced and recre- 
ational areas may be set aside for public enjoyment, are very 
desirable. 

"It is with pleasure that I endorse this forward movement 
looking to the upbuilding of the state's forest resources. 

"L. G. HARDMAN." 



22 Georgia Forest Service 



Governor Roosevelt Approves Forest-Parks 

"It is very heartening to know that Georgia is seriously 
taking up the great problem of reforestation and of state parks. 
The two go hand in hand. 

"I hope to see the day when capital will realize the value 
of investing in new timber growth for this is a crop in which 
there is little risk, even though the return on the investment 
has to be delayed for a number of years. 

"The State can well afford, through the creation of State 
Forest-Parks and demonstration areas, to prove the value of 
forestry to the average citizen. As in most of the other older 
states, a large part of land now devoted to annual crops could 
better be employed in growing trees. This is a vital necessity 
for the future generations of Georgia citizens. 

"FRANKLIN D. ROOSEVELT, 

"Governor of New York." 
"Warm Springs, Ga. 
"May, 1929." 



April, 1929 



Bui. 7 



Georgia Forest Service 

B. M. LUFBURROW, State Forester 



Vocational Forestry 

By 

Charles A. Whittle, 
Director of Education and Utilization 




■ 









INTRODUCTION 

This publication has been prepared with a view to pre- 
senting basic facts about forestry, and to suggest observations 
and demonstrations in connection with school forests. Refer- 
ences are made to other publications for supplementary use. 

The vocational schools of Georgia are the first in this coun- 
try to take up forestry with a demonstration school forest. 
Each school conducting the project has one or more tracts which 
the students will handle under the direction of the Agricultu- 
ral Vocational teacher, in line with working plans developed 
by the State Forest Service. Representatives of the State For- 
est Service will visit the school forests once or twice a year. 

Students demonstrating outstanding qualifications as 
shown by school work will be awarded scholarships to sum- 
mer forestry camps, where more advanced and practical work 
in forestry will be given leading to a certificate of Vocational 
Forester, which will recommend the holder for one or more 
of the positions of forest ranger, fire warden, timber cruiser, 
log and lumber inspector, superintendent of saw mills, mana- 
ger of turpentine operations, superintendent of state forest- 
parks and other non-technical forestry jobs. 



PART I 



How Trees Grow 

Seed. Most trees produce abundant seed, more, in fact, than 
is ever needed to keep up forest growth. But so many things 
can happen to seed. Birds and animals of various kinds feed 
on tree seed; many fall in places where there is no chance for 
them to grow; some fall and start growth but other trees have 
the advantage and suppress them; quite a few do not have 
the power to germinate; fires often come to destroy them; and 
competition among trees for ground space in the forest is keen. 
So it is that abundant seed are essential for a tree species to 
survive all the adversities of its environment and hold its place 
in the forest. 

Seed Distribution. Tree seed assume many forms. Pines 
produce them in cones and equip each with a wing so that it 
can fly on the wind as far as a quarter of a mile and some- 
times further. Many other species of trees are similarly equip- 
ped for wind distribution. 

An acorn or nut has no facilities for traveling. It falls 
straight to the ground. Squirrels are its chief distributors 
through their instinct for carrying nuts and storing them in 
the ground for future food supply, then, either forgetting where 
nuts are buried or finding it unnecessary to use them as food, 
the squirrel leaves them to germinate and start growth where 
the nut-bearing tree could not scatter them. 

Germination. Every well-developed, mature tree and seed 
contains a germ. When the temperature is warm enough and 
moisture is present, the seed germ starts growth. This is called 
germination. 

In each seed is stored enough plant food to promote growth 
until the roots are formed to draw on the supply of plant 



food in the ground and until a green shoot is sent up to get 
sunlight and what it needs from the air. As soon as roots and 
leaves have developed a distinct plant is formed called a seed- 
ling. 

Roots of Trees. The seedling at once begins the develop- 
ment of a root system. The roots serve as an anchor to hold 
the tree upright, a matter of great importance when the height 
of trees and the strain on them by high winds are considered. 
Tall, slender trees like pine have long, strong tap roots to brace 
them against winds. 

While tap roots absorb some moisture and plant food, the 
main feeding roots are the lateral or spreading roots that range 
near the surface where plant food is more abundant. These 
lateral roots have many branches on which are many very small 
tender roots that absorb soil water and take in plant food that 
is carried up into the tree to supply growth material. 

Tree Leaves. The function of the leaves of trees is to ab- 
sorb sunlight and to take a gas called carbon dioxide out of 
the air. The sunlight falling on the leaf and carbon dioxide 
entering the leaf through minute openings called stomata ac- 
count \mainly for the production of starch in the green surface 
cells of the leaf. The starch, or starch changed to sugar, is 
carried by sap through the tree and is an important substance 
in building its structure. 

Leaves also evaporate or give off water into the air. By 
disposing of water in this way, room is made for soil water 
to move up into the tree carrying plant food from the soil. 

When leaves shed they form a bed on the forest floor which 
eventually decays to form leaf mold. The elements of plant food 
in the decayed leaves are then taken up by the tree roots. Thus 
trees, to this extent, feed on themselves. 

Food of Trees. Like any other plant life, trees require ten 
elements of plant food — carbon, oxygen, hydrogen, nitrogen, 



phosphorus, potassium, calcium, magnesium, iron and sul- 
phur. Carbon and oxygen are taken in through the leaf. All 
the others are taken in through the roots. 

Water, which is a combination of oxygen and hydrogen, 
is the plant food carrier. It not only moves up from the soil 
through the roots as sap, but it circulates all through the struc- 
ture of the tree before passing off into the air as invisible fog 
from the leaves. 

A very peculiar and interesting thing is that the sap water 
moves uphill, climbing from the foots to the topmost twig. A 
force not easily described, causes this movement of water up- 
ward. It is called osmosis, which is to say, the ability of water 
to soak through the structure of the cells in an effort to dis- 
tribute itself evenly throughout the plant and to keep the mois- 
ture in the plant from being too dense or strong with chemical 
elements. Since water is constantly evaporating from the leaves, 
this keeps water moving upward to replace that which is lost 
through evaporation. 

In the sap is dissolved plant food which the cells of the 
tree structure absorb. In each cell there is digestive power to 
convert plant food into tree growth substance. Plant food 
moves largely through the tissue immediately under the bark. 
This tissue is called the "cambium layer." When one chops 
through the cambium layer all around the tree trunk the tree, 
of course, is deprived of its needed plant food and it dies. 
This is called "deadening the tree." 

Age of Trees. When a tree is sawn down, the trunk shows 
a series of rings. Each ring represents a year's growth, and 
one can, of course, count the rings and learn how old the tree 
is. Some of the rings will be found wider apart than others, 
the narrow rings indicating drouth, forest fire damage or some 
other injury. 

Forests and Fires 

The greatest enemy of forests is fire and, since man is 
largely responsible for fires, he is most to blame. Fires do not 



have to be raging flames of large proportions to do damage; 
but ground fires burning only the bark, leaves, twigs and leaf 
mold do very serious injury in the following ways: 

1. Tree seed are destroyed. 

2. Young trees are killed. 

3. Older trees are scorched, weakening their vitality and 
allowing the entrance of decay, thus slowing up tree growth. 

4. By destroying the mulch of leaves and leaf mold, less 
rain water is soaked up and more of it runs off the surface to 
cause bigger floods with their destruction to life and property. 
It has been shown that the leaf litter on the soil of an unburn- 
ed forest holds seven times as much rain water as that on soil 
that has been burned over every year. By fire reducing the 
water absorbing power of the soil the volume of the flow of 
springs and streams between floods is reduced. This means 
that the amount of available water power is lessened, a serious 
matter in this age of hydro-electric power. 

In burning the leaves and leaf mold the fires destroy the 
rarest and most needed form of plant food, nitrogen, an ele- 
ment that has most to do with tree growth. Thus, forest 
soils are made poorer. 

Reforestation and Floods 

Georgia has about 23,000,000 acres in forest. About 6, - 
000,000 acres of abandoned or unprofitable farm lands should 
be reforested. With 29,000,000 to 30,000,000 acres in for- 
est and with cultivated, sloping lands properly terraced, disas- 
trous floods could largely be averted. Georgia has the con- 
trol of its floods in its own hands because all the main streams 
in the state rise within its own borders. 

Abandoned uplands now being washed away and convert- 
ed into unsightly gullies could be changed into forest lands 
with little trouble. Usually there are seed trees near the old 



fields that are spreading their seed with the help of trie wind 
over these waste lands. The seed find no trouble in starting 
growth, but too often someone sets fire to sedge grass in the 
old field and the little trees are burned to death. 

Where there are no seed trees trying to reforest old fields, 
young trees can be planted. This is done by getting seedlings 
from tree nurseries and planting them, or by digging up young 
seedlings from the forest and setting them out in the field. The 
methods to be used will be discussed further on in this publica- 
tion. 

Not only are abandoned lands and poorly terraced lands 
damaged by washing, but nearby streams are often clogged with 
sand bars so that rich bottom lands are overflowed and become 
water-logged and swampy, rendering them unfit for cultiva- 
tion. 

Reforesting will, therefore, not only convert old fields to 
some use but it will help save the bottom lands; and terracing 
cultivated lands will not only help preserve bottom lands but 
check the enormous annual loss of soil plant food that flows 
away in streams. 

One reason why land owners do not plant trees is that 
a crop of timber can not be harvested from the land the same 
year the seed are planted as is the case with cotton and corn. 
The question might be asked here: "Will growing a forest 
pay?" 

Will Forest Growing Pay? In answer, it can be said that 
it will. It has been shown how forests will help reduce flood 
damage, how they help to keep up the flow of springs and 
streams between floods, thus conserving water power and also 
protecting bottom lands. 

But a tree crop will pay without taking those things into 
consideration. Take pines, the greatest forest crop of Georgia. A 
good crop of pines will grow wood at the rate of a cord or 






more per acre each year, or the equivalent of 500 board feet of 
lumber. Of course, one must wait for the harvest, but each 
year that much value is being added to each acre of the land. 
Then remember that idle land does not produce anything, in 
fact, is a source of annual loss. By reforesting, the land be- 
comes productive, yielding timber growth annually worth from 
$5 to $8 an acre. Is that not worth while? 

Remember, however, that this can be accomplished only 
when fires are kept out. 

Suggestions 

Identify leading commercial trees by classes in the school 
forest, using the bulletin "Forest Trees of Georgia," issued 
by the Forest School of the Georgia State College of Agri- 
culture. Find the largest tree of each species. 

Observe the effect of light on the development of a given 
species of tree in the open or on the edge of the forest com- 
pared with trees in the denser part of the forest. 

Study the adjustment of leaves on limbs and twigs so as 
to be exposed to the maximum amount of sunlight. 

Make a collection of the different seeds of trees in the for- 
est. Study facilities of the seed for distribution. 

Dig up a young tree (do not take it from the demonstra- 
tion forest) , and study the tap root, lateral roots and the small 
feeding roots. Study the bark, the cambium layer of cells, the 
structural divisions and count the rings denoting annual 
growth. 

Visit old fields where trees are checking erosion. 

Note pine seed trees near old fields and how widely they 
are scattering seed and starting new growth. Observe where 
fires have destroyed young pine. 

Study the germination and root development of seeds in 
the laboratory. 

8 



PART II 

Trees of Georgia 

From the mountain crests of Georgia to the tidewater of 
the Atlantic Ocean, 163 species of trees have been found. 
Stretching north and south, the state has a wide latitude. From 
a 5,000 feet mountain altitude in the northern part of the 
state to the sea level the state has quite a variation in alti- 
tude. On account of its latitude and altitude, Georgia has 
trees on its mountain tops that naturally belong to the far 
north, while on its southern border are trees of semi-tropic na- 
ture. Thus the state has an extraordinary number of species 
of trees. 

Geographically, Georgia has three main divisions; the Coast- 
al Plain, the Piedmont area and the mountain. The predomi- 
nant trees of the coastal plain are pines. In the Peidmont area 
pines and hardwoods are about equally divided, while in the 
mountain area hardwoods predominate. 

While a few trees seem at home in any latitude, at any 
altitude and on almost any kind of soil, most of them have 
preferences. Spruce and hemlock and white pine, for instance, 
are at home only on the high, cool altitude of the mountains. 
Cypress does not mind wet feet and grows in swamps and de- 
velops "knees," curious enlargements of the lower trunk to 
help underwater growth. Some trees like to be in water at 
least part of the time, such as black gum. Many trees like rich, 
moist soils and are found along streams, borders of swamps 
and ponds and in bottom lands. Among these are the syca- 
more, poplar, tulip, red gum, cottonwood, beech, some of the 
oaks, willow, magnolia and some of the pines. 

Some trees like fertile soil, whether in the coves of the 
mountains, on bottom lands of the valleys or on fertile lands 
of the coastal plain. Such are the walnut, locust, poplar, cer- 



tain hickories and the pawpaw. When the state was first settled 
lands were chosen for fertility by the kinds of trees they grew, 
and the first classification of soils was by the kind of tree growth 
on the land. 

Some trees care only for dry soils, some are most abundant 
on sandy soils, others on clay soils. Some, like the scrub oak, 
have taken possession of poor soils of the sand hills. 

The distribution of the trees of Georgia may, therefore, be 
said to be largely according to latitude, altitude, swamps, semi- 
swamps, stream and swamp borders, sandy soils, clay soils, 
rich soils and poor soils. 

Trees and Shrubs. The question pnay be asked "How is a 
shrub to be distinguished from a tree?" 

A tree is usually considered as any forest growth that has 
two inches or more of trunk diameter and ten feet or more in 
height. A shrub is a growth that at maturity may be less than 
two inches in trunk diameter and less than ten feet in height. 

Commercial Trees. Since this publication is about com- 
mercial trees, the question may be asked in this connection, 
"What constitutes a commercial tree?" 

In this discussion, an important commercial tree will be 
considered to be any tree the wood or product of which is used 
for the manufacture of articles offered for sale. This, of course, 
excludes trees sold for ornamental purposes or plantings for 
shade. The number of important commercial trees in Georgia 
is placed at 53, but many of these are of minor importance. 



Wood Manufacturing In Georgia 

Lumber. According to the census of the United States for 
1925, Georgia had 1,105 saw mills, sawing approximately 1,- 
500,000,000 board feet of lumber and employing an average of 

10 






14,875 workmen daily throughout the year who were paid 
annually $10,600,565.00 in salaries and wages. 

As would be expected from its great pine forest area, the 
species of tree producing the most lumber is the pine. The 
census of 1925 showed that 85 per cent of all lumber sawn 
in the state, or 1,172,640,000 board feet, came from the pine. 

Trees sawn into lumber in Georgia during the year re- 
ported by the Federal census and the amount of lumber from 
each are as follows: 

Species No. Board Ft. 

Yellow Pine 1,172,640,000 

Cypress 62,709,000 

Oak 39,889,000 

Yellow Poplar 37,082,000 

Red Gum 35,095,000 

Ash 6, 159,000 

Tupelo 3,2 1 5,000 

White Pine 2,302,000 

Maple 1,302,000 

Sycamore 1 ,28 1,000 

Chestnut 1 ,042,000 

Cottonwood 730,000 

Hemlock 524,000 

Hickory 493,000 

Basswood 133,000 

Beech 6 1 ,000 

Birch 1 2,000 

Elm 9,000 

Cedar 6,000 

Cooperage. Georgia produces a large number of wooden 
barrels each year for shipping naval stores products (rosin and 
turpentine), oil, tar and other manufactured products; for ship- 
ping tobacco, potatoes, and other agricultural products. In 
1925, 240,023,000 staves and 23,052,000 headings were made 

11 



for tight cooperage, and 937,597,000 staves and 71,371,000 
sets of headings for slack cooperage. 

In the manufacture of tight staves and headings, Georgia 
used white oak, red oak, pine, red gum and ash, mainly. For 
slack headings and hoops, producers in Georgia used pine, yel- 
low poplar, elm, cottonwood, tupelo, oak, birch, red gum and 
maple. 

Much the greater part of cooperage of all kinds is pro- 
duced from pine in Georgia. Elm is the favored wood for 
making hoops. In 1925, 477 establishments were manufac- 
turing cooperage products. In many cases, turpentine stills are 
also producers of barrels. 

Shingles. Seventeen Georgia producers of shingles in 1925 
turned out 18,762,000 shingles. Most of them were made 
of pine, but chestnut, cypress, ash and oak were also used. 

Laths. Georgia produced 22,186,000 laths in 1925, pine 
being the wood almost exclusively used. 

Boxes. Wooden boxes are made of various kinds of wood. 
Ten wooden box manufacturers employing 1,054 people are 
turning out boxes of all sorts valued at about $1,500,000 each 
year. Pine, poplar, oak, chestnut, gum, cypress, tupelo and 
cedar are among the leading species of trees used in box pro- 
duction. 

Baskets, Hampers and Crates. A great many baskets and 
crates are used each year to ship Georgia peaches, apples, can- 
taloupes, potatoes, beans, lettuce and other vegetable crops. Most 
of these are made from pine, but poplar, gum, chestnut, cotton- 
wood and other less important trees are used. Willow and pine 
needles are used to some extent in basket making. 

Veneer. Many different kinds of trees in Georgia are man- 
ufactured into veneer. In 1925, Georgia converted 11,412,000 
feet of logs into veneer. Veneer is made by making thin layers 

12 






of wood. This is usually done with a sharp blade that cuts 
as the log rolls and makes a continuous sheet of wood. These 
sheets are then glued to the surface of less valuable wood em- 
ployed in manufacturing furniture, desks, doors, panels, etc. 
Some of the cheaper woods are used to produce veneer used in 
making baskets and fruit and vegetable containers. Among the 
Georgia woods used are walnut, cherry, red gum, poplar, mag- 
nolia, oaks, sycamore, cypress, basswood, tupelo, birch, cotton- 
wood, maple, cedar, elm, willow, ash, beech. 

Furniture and Fixtures. In the manufacture of household 
furniture, office desks and fixtures, Georgia does not take im- 
portant rank among the states, but about 2,500 people are 
engaged in this line of manufacture. Leading materials used 
are oak, walnut, red gum, poplar, pine, cypress, magnolia, Cot- 
tonwood and maple. Imported mahogany is also used. 

Excelsior. This product made by producing thin shavings 
from wood is used for packing material, pads, etc. One form 
is known as pine wool where the pine is broken down into 
fibre resembling wool. Practically all excelsior made in Geor- 
gia is from pine. Cottonwood and basswood are also impor- 
tant sources in other states. 

Turnery. Among articles of this class are handles, rollers, 
spools, bobbins, bowls, rolling pins, ladders, kitchenware, etc. 
A number of woods are used for this purpose, among them* 
being poplar, pine, gum, sycamore, dogwood, persimmon, ash, 
hickory, birch, beech, elm, basswood, tupelo, locust, sassafras, 
bay and gum. 

Pulpwood. Both pines and hardwoods are accepted by 
paper mills. The wood is bought by the cord with specifica- 
tions that the pieces are not to be less than four inches in di- 
ameter. This demand is growing and promises to provide in 
the future a ready market for tops of trees cut for saw logs; for 
timber that should be cut to properly thin a forest; for species 
of trees not acceptable for lumber; for saw imill waste and storm 
damaged timber. 

13 



Wood Preserving. Georgia has some large timber preserv- 
ing plants, where telephone and telegraph poles, cross ties, pil- 
ing and fence posts are impregnated with creosote. This treat- 
ment retards decay and prolongs the usefulness of wood that 
yomes especially in contact with the earth and water. The 
wood preserving industry of Georgia turns out products worth 
annually nearly $4,000,000. 

The woods used are such as are employed as poles and posts, 
such as chestnut, cedar, pine, cypress and gum. 

Planing Mill Products. Many saw mills also operate plan- 
ing mills but there are many planing mills that are independ- 
ent of the saw mills. Planing mills not only smooth the rough 
surface of sawn lumber but many of the plants manufacture 
doors, sash, window and door frames, floors, ceilings, plywood, 
silos, tanks, molding, panels and so forth. The total annual 
output from 125 plants of this nature in Georgia is about 
$41,000,000. 

In this line of wood manufacture, all sorts of wood adapt- 
ed to use for these purposes are employed. For floors, oak, 
maple, pine, red gum, chestnut and other straight-grained, 
smooth woods are employed. For doors, window frames and 
sash, pine, cypress, poplar and chestnut are most commonly 
employed. For ceiling, pine, poplar, chestnut, cypress, red gum, 
maple, ash and other woods are desirable. Interior finishing, 
panels, and so forth, require oak, red gum, cypress, beech, birch, 
walnut, maple, cedar, magnolia, poplar and a number of other 
Georgia woods. 

Forests and Water 

In the previous chapter something was given about how 
fire reduces the water-holding capacity of the forest floor; also, 
what effect keeping down forest fires and reforesting old fields 
would have in reducing the danger of floods. It jnight be 
asked, "How do the leaves and leaf mold reduce the surface 



14 



run-off of rain?" It is well to know the "why" of everything 
one possibly can. 

A forest floor covered with leaves and twigs in various 
stages of decay, including the porous leaf mold and the humus 
which is finely broken-down organic matter, is capable of ab- 
sorbing or holding back rain fall and preventing it from run- 
ning off the surface. There are three ways in which this is 
done: 

1. The leaves and twigs offer resistance to water flow. 
The longer the water is held in place the greater the opportuni- 
ty for it to soak downward into the soil. 

2. The decaying and decayed leaves are somewhat like 
sponge in their ability to absorb water. 

3. When vegetable matter breaks down into soil parti- 
cles, these particles are extremely small, some being even small- 
er than particles composing clay. The smaller the particles of 
soil, the more water the soil will hold, for every particle is 
surrounded by a film of water. This is why muck soil or other 
soil made largely of vegetable matter holds so much more water 
than sand or sandy soil. 

The above reasons show why the forest soil from which 
fires have been kept will catch and absorb rain water, but it 
may be added that decayed roots provide channels for carrying 
water downward, and live roots aid in a measure in the same 
way. 

Rain water gets away from the soil in four ways: (1) By 
running off of the surface into the streams. (2) By seeping 
downward into springs and, finally, into streams. (3) By en- 
tering the roots of trees and plants of all sorts and evaporating 
into the air through the leaves. (4) By evaporating from the 
surface of the soil into the air. 

The loss of water by soil surface evaporation is not of 
much consequence in a forest, for it is checked by leaves on the 

15 



ground and by shade keeping the ground cool. One can read- 
ily see a difference between the moisture content of soil under 
leaves and the soil of an open, cultivated field during dry 
weather. 

With forest fires kept out and the forest soil allowed to 
store a maximum amount of water, the result will be that 
springs and streams will have a larger constant flow. This 
means, as we have seen, that there will be more water power 
available throughout the year, which is of general importance 
because most of the electricity used in Georgia comes from 
water power. If it were not for water power our electricity 
would be more expensive. 

Suggestions 

Find out how many species of commercial trees are repre- 
sented in the demonstration forest. Which species predominate 
in the forest? 

Find out which trees are the tallest, which have the great- 
est amount of log timber suitable for lumber; which will pro- 
duce the most cordwood. 

Sketch leaves and seed of leading species of trees in dem- 
onstration forest. 

Test water-holding capacity of forest soil and cultivated 
soil by filling two flower pots of equal size, each having a 
hole in its bottom. If the wood soil is fluffy, it should be 
packed tightly into the pot. Pour slowly a measured amount 
of water into each pot. Note how much water is required 
in each instance before water begins to leak through the hole 
in the bottom. 

To observe how much humus, or organic matter, is de- 
stroyed by fire, weigh a given amount of forest soil. Sub- 
ject it to a hot fire and then weigh again. 

16 



Arrange a debate on the question of which is the most use- 
ful of the two leading commercial species of trees in the dem- 
onstration forest. 

What wood-working industries in Georgia use different 
species of trees in your demonstration forest? See Bulletin, 
"Uses of Georgia Woods," issued by Georgia Forest Service. 

Which trees in the demonstration forest put out leaves first 
in the spring? 



PART III 

Pines of Georgia 

Georgia's greatest resources are connected with the pine which 
covers more than half the forested areas of the state. The pine 
area is increasing because of the greater ability of the pine to 
reseed old fields and to take possession of other areas from 
which hardwoods have been removed. 

Pines are found in all parts of the state, predominating in 
the coastal plain and the lower part of the Piedmont region. 
In the lower part of the state and especially on moist lands 
the slash pine predominates. North of the slash pine area the 
longleaf exceeds all other kinds. In the upper coastal plain 
and lower Piedmont the loblolly is ;most abundant. In the 
upper Piedmont and foothills the shortleaf pine is the most 
important of the pine species. 

While these are distinct pine species belts, there is consid- 
erable intermingling. The loblolly is found in the slash and 
longleaf area. The longleaf is interspersed with the slash, 
usually occupying the dryer areas; likewise, the slash invades 
the wetter soils of the longleaf area. The shortleaf of the upper 
part of the state is found in areas of the loblolly belt. 'Isolated 
areas of longleaf are also found well up in this loblolly area. 

17 



The three species of pine of greatest commercial import- 
ance in the state are the slash, longleaf and loblolly. Short- 
leaf pine produces a fine quality of lumber but is not as abun- 
dant as the other three species. Slash and longleaf pines pro- 
duce turpentine; the others do not yield enough turpentine to 
make it profitable to use them. 

The lumber market groups all four species into "yellow 
pine" and makes no distinction between them, but the short- 
leaf has a stronger, denser wood because of its slower growth 
and, for some purposes, its wood is superior. 

In addition to the four leading species of pines mentioned, 
Georgia has the "pitch pine" which grows on the mountains. 
Its wood is brittle, soft and used only for rough lumber. It 
is also suited for wood pulp. 

A species of pine in some places attaining considerable com- 
mercial importance in the coastal plain is the pond pine or black 
pine. It is sold as yellow pine. A peculiarity of this species 
is that it will put up sprouts from the stump. 

Other pines of the mountain region are the scrub pine and 
the white pine. The wood of the scrub pine is very knotty 
and useful only for rough lumber and wood pulp, while white 
pine makes excellent lumber. 

A spruce pine is also found in bottoms and river swamps 
of the coastal plain, nowhere in abundance. The wood is 
brittle, close-grained and warps badly. It would be available 
as a source of wood pulp. 

In learning how to identify the pines of Georgia, the stu- 
dent is referred to a publication entitled "Forest Trees of Geor- 
gia," issued by the Forest School of the Georgia State College 
of Agriculture. 

Reproduction of Pines 

A peculiarity of the longleaf pine is that it does not pro- 
duce seed every year. At times as long as seven years may 

18 



intervene between seed crops, but usually the time is about five 
years. The loblolly and slash are usually annual seeders. This 
accounts for loblolly and slash pine often taking over areas 
formerly occupied by longleaf. When a woods fire kills a 
young longleaf pine, it may, therefore, take several years for 
the young tree to be replaced by natural processes. 

Vastly more seed are scattered than ever germinate and 
start growth. Some may not fall where they can make con- 
tact with the soil. Many are consumed by birds and wild ani- 
mals as the pine seed is one of their favorite foods. 

Growth Habits. As soon as pine seed germinate much of 
the young plant's first growth is put into the tap root. Pines, 
as we have learned, require strong, deep tap roots to anchor 
their tall growth firmly in the ground. The longleaf pine, 
especially, concentrates on the development of its root system 
for the first two or three years, making no upward growth dur- 
ing that time. 

The slash pine does not require as much time to get started. 
It makes more growth for 20 to 30 years after it starts than 
the longleaf, but the longleaf's annual growth usually sur- 
passes slash after that time. Because of the early rapid growth, 
slash pine is generally used in reforesting in the Southern part 
of the state. 

One of the enemies of the young pine is the hog, sometimes 
referred to as the "piney woods rooter." The roots of young 
longleaf pine especially are uprooted and fed upon. Sometimes 
injury of this character to slash pine has been noted but this 
is unusual. 

Naval Stores Industry 

Georgia produces more naval stores (turpentine and rosin) 
than any other state. Savannah is the greatest naval stores 
market in the world. Brunswick is also an important naval 
stores exporting point. Sixty-five counties in South Georgia 

19 



produced, according to the census of 1926, naval stores valued 
at $23,000,000. 

The longleaf and slash pine are drawn upon for these ma- 
terials, other pines being too low in producing gum to make 
their use profitable. 

Different terms are used for describing the chipping of the 
sides of the trees for turpentining. "Facing," "boxing" and 
"cupping" are most commonly used. 

Methods of Turpentining. "Boxing" is used to describe a 
method of deep cutting of the tree. This is a destructive meth- 
od and in recent years has been largely replaced by the "cup- 
and-gutter" system. The advantages of the cup-and-gutter sys- 
tem over boxing are: (a) The yield of turpentine is greater 
and the quality of rosin better. (b) The loss and damage 
from fire is reduced. (c) The tree is stronger and less liable 
to be blown down by winds. 

A method used in France and known in America as the 
"French method" consists of lighter chipping with narrow, oval 
face. This does not wound the tree so much, the scars heal 
over more quickly and the life of the tree is prolonged. 

Some comparisons made of the American with the French 
method show more production by the American, but others 
show equally as good yield from the French. At any rate, by 
keeping up the vigor of the tree and lengthening its life and 
the period of turpentining, the French method would prob- 
ably be the more profitable in the long run. A combination 
of the American and French methods is among the future pos- 
sibilities in the South. 

Mistakes in Turpentining. The greatest mistake made in 
turpentining is in using small trees. No tree less than 8 to 10 
inches in diameter at four and a half feet from the ground 
should be cupped. It is not profitable and the young tree's 

20 



growth is hindered so much and weakened to such an extent 
that fires and high winds frequently destroy it. 

Not more than two faces should be allowed on any tree, 
and two faces should be made only on trees 14 inches in di- 
ameter and over. For trees 12 to 14 inches in diameter, the 
face should not exceed 8 inches in width, and those on trees 
above 16 inches in diameter should not exceed 10 to 12 inches 
in width. The height to which a face should be increased in 
any one year should not be more than 16 inches; that is, one- 
half inch to 32 streaks a season. No streak should be deeper 
than one-half inch into the wood under the bark. This is 
known as "light chipping." Before chipping begins the bark 
on the surface to be chipped should be scraped off clean. This 
makes a higher grade rosin. 

If these general rules are followed, pine trees can be tur- 
pentined satisfactorily and also make fair growth. It is im- 
portant that abundant growth bark be left. This can not be 
done if trees are too small when faced, or if the faces are ex- 
tended so as to leave too small growth bark, but by following 
the above rules, this will be avoided and trees treated in this 
way will continue to grow at about two-thirds of the rate of 
the natural growth they would attain without turpentining. 
Thus turpentined trees can grow up into timber suitable for 
lumber, and because of their double use, the longleaf and slash 
pines are often spoken of as "dual purpose" trees. 

Fire Hazard. Because of the combustible nature of pine 
needles on the ground and of the gum on the surface of the 
chipped face of the tree, precautions must be taken to keep down 
fires. It is customary to rake the needles and grass away from 
the base of the trees for two or three feet and many turpentine 
operators then burn off the forest floor. 

The more modern and economic method is to put in fire 
breaks, patrol the area, maintain fire towers and fire fighting 
equipment to suppress fires. We have already learned how 

21 



fires destroy the fertility of the forest soil and retard growth. 
For the same reason, fires will cut down the yield of turpen- 
tine, certainly when a long period is averaged, because fires re- 
duce the growth of trees. 

Uses of Naval Stores. As the name indicates, the products 
obtained from turpentining trees are used by the ship-building 
industry. This was its first important use. Now these prod- 
ucts have many uses. Turpentine is employed in paints, var- 
nishes, in making explosives and chemicals of various kinds. 
Rosin is used for manufacturing varnish, paper, sealing wax, 
soap, ship's caulking, in medicines, printers' inks, on violin 
bows, shoemakers' thread, and so forth. 

Pine Wood Uses. From Georgia's pines come the greater 
part of the lumber, laths, staves, boxes, poles, crates and excel- 
sior produced in Georgia. It promises to be an important source 
of wood pulp as it already is in some other Southern states. 
Quite an industry has developed in Georgia by uprooting pine 
stumps and extracting the turpentine. Pine needles are woven 
into baskets and fancy articles of various kinds. 

The heart wood of pine is hard and quite durable, even 
when in contact with the earth. The sapwood, or outer layer 
of the trunk of the pine is comparatively soft and decays rap- 
idly when exposed to rain if it is not protected with paint or 
creosote. 

Other Conifers. Cedars and cypress are other species of 
trees belonging to the conifer or pine family. Red and white 
cedars are found in Georgia, the red being most common. It 
is used for lead pencils, posts, poles, chests, interior finishing 
and so forth. The white cedar, or juniper, grows in low, 
moist and swampy lands of South Georgia. The wood is light, 
soft, cross-grained and is used for hoat and canoe building, 
cooperage, shingles and fence posts 

Cypress grows in swamp and wet land areas of South 
Georgia. It has a straight trunk with broad buttressed base 

22 



and "knees," peculiar to the tree as a means of providing the 
roots additional contact with the air. The limbs are usually 
festooned with aerial moss. The wood is light, soft, easily- 
worked, light to dark-brown in color and is very durable. It 
is used for both exterior and interior finishing, for boat and 
ship building, shingles, posts, poles, crossties and so forth. 

Georgia's Hardwoods 

In a previous discussion of the uses of Georgia woods some- 
thing has been learned as to the main wooden products. Now 
we are to learn something about the character of the wood of 
the various leading hardwood trees which adapts them to dif- 
ferent uses. 

The principal commercial hardwoods of Georgia are the 
oaks, hickories, poplar, chestnut, birch, beech, red gum, black 
gum, magnolia, sycamore, locust, wild cherry, maple, ash, bass- 
wood, dogwood, persimmon, tupelo, cottonwood, willow and 
walnut. 

The uses of Georgia woods are described in detail in Bulle- 
tin Number 5 entitled "Uses of Georgia Woods" of the Geor- 
gia Forest Service, and "Forest Trees of Georgia," issued by 
the Forest School of the Georgia State College of Agriculture 
for tree identification should be consulted for more detailed in- 
formation. 

Oaks. All the leading varieties of oaks are found in Geor- 
gia, namely: White oak, post oak, chestnut oak, basket oak, live 
oak, red oak (Southern and Northern), black oak, scarlet oak, 
turkey oak, blackjack oak, water oak, willow oak, laurel oak 
and overcup oak. 

White oak is commercially the most desired because of its 
heavy, strong, hard, tough, close-grained and durable wood 
which is light brown in color. White oak wood is used for 
furniture, wagons, shipbuilding, flooring, interior finish, tight 

23 



cooperage and general construction, and the trees arc suitable 
for highway planting. 

Post oak is employed for imost of the purposes for which 
white oak is used. The wood is light to dark brown, close- 
grained and durable in contact with the soil, making it also 
durable for cross-ties, fence posts, bridge timbers. 

Chestnut oak wood is similar to white oak, also, and is 
used for the same purposes. A swamp chestnut oak, or basket 
oak, is used for making baskets, also for lumber, veneer, tight 
cooperage and fence posts. 

Red oak, sometimes called Spanish oak, is used for rough 
lumber, tables, chairs and interior finishing. Its color is light 
reddish-brown. The northern red oak is found most com- 
monly in the mountains. It has light reddish-brown heart- 
wood and lighter colored sapwood. It is used in the same 
way as southern red oak. 

Black oak, also called yellow oak, has hard, coarse-grained 
wood of the same appearance as red oak, under which name for 
similar purposes it is sold. 

Overcup oak is not found in abundance. Its wood is used 
for the same purposes as white oak. 

Other oaks are not of much commercial importance in 
Georgia. Live oak is especially desirable for highway and park 
planting. Water oak and scarlet oak are also used extensive- 
ly for ornamental planting. 

Hickories. Georgia's leading hickories are the scaly-bark, 
whiteheart, bitternut, pignut and pecan. All species of hickory 
have heavy, tough, hard, strong, flexible woods that adapts 
them to use for tool handles, wagon construction, agricultural 
implements, athletic goods and so on. Pecans, of course, are 
prized too highly for their nuts to be grown for lumber. Hick- 
ories make good highway and park trees. 

24 



Poplar. Also known as the tulip tree, is a stately tree that 
grows in all parts of the state and has been an important source 
of light, soft, easily worked lumber. Its color is light-yellow 
to brown. Its wood is used for lumber, interior and exterior 
construction, veneers, vehicle bodies, turnery and so forth. 

Chestnut. A tall growing tree of the mountains and Pied- 
mont area of the state, bearing edible nuts in prickly burs, is 
rapidly disappearing because of the chestnut blight. Its wood 
is light, soft, easily worked, and very durable but not strong. 
It is adapted for making poles, posts, crossties, lumber and in- 
terior finishing. The bark and wood are also used by tan- 
neries. 

Birch. River or red birch and black birch are found in 
Georgia. The river birch is found along borders of streams, 
ponds and swamps. Its wood is used for woodenware, turnery, 
wagon hubs and so forth. Black birch is found in the moun- 
tains. Its wood is dark-brown, giving it a local name of moun- 
tain mahogany. Its wood is used for furniture, flooring and 
trimming. 

Beech. Three species of trees growing in Georgia are called 
beech, blue beech and hornbeam or ironwood. The hornbeam 
or ironwood grows in the northern part of the state. Its wood 
is light-brown, strong, hard and durable. It is used for fence 
posts, handles, and mallets. 

Blue beech, or water beech, is found along low grounds. 
Its wood is tough, close-grained, heavy and strong. Among 
its uses are levers, tool handles, mallets, wedges and so forth. 

The beech most widely distributed over the state grows in 
association with hickories and oaks on well-drained, rich soils. 
This species has its three-sided nuts in prickly burs. The wood 
is used for furniture, flooring, tool handles and novelty ware. 

Gum. The red gum, or sweet gum, which grows in rich 
bottom lands along streams and swamps is a very valuable com- 

25 



mercial tree. Its fruit is borne in prickly balls. The wood is 
very popular for veneer used on furniture, interior finishing and 
so forth. The dark wood makes it suitable for use in the place 
of mahogany and Circassian walnut. It is also desirable for 
ornamental planting. 

Black gum, often called sour gum, grows in lowlands, 
swamps and on dry slopes, being by nature adapted to varying 
conditions. It is looked upon as a "weed" among forest trees, 
but is finding use in making crates, baskets, veneers, rollers, 
mallets and pulp wood. The black gum is not kin to the sweet 
gum. 

Magnolia. This tree is perhaps the most popular orna- 
mental tree of the state. It grows wild in the coastal plain 
area and is cut for lumber and veneer. Its wood is moderately 
heavy and hard with a creamy color. It makes a choice in- 
terior finishing. 

Locust. The black and honey locust grow in Georgia. The 
black locust grows in the upper half of the state, usually in 
thickets. The wood is yellow, coarse-grained, very heavy and 
hard, strong and durable in contact with the soil. Its chief 
uses are for fence posts, poles, insulator pins and tree nails. 

Honey locust is known for its long pods containing yellow, 
sweetish pulp and seed which are eaten by aniimals and birds. 
The coarse-grained wood is hard, strong, durable and is used 
for fence posts and crossties, but it is not as durable as black 
locust. 

Cherry. Black cherry or wild cherry reaches its largest de- 
velopment in the mountains. The wood is reddish-brown with 
yellow sapwood. It is strong, fine-grained, valuable for its 
lustre and color. It is used for furniture, interior finish and 
handles. Next to black walnut it brings the highest price of 
any timber in the state. 

Maple. Three species of maple grow in Georgia, the white 

26 



bark, red and silver. Whitebark maple is common to the Pied- 
mont area. The wood is hard, strong, coarse-grained and 
tough. Red maple or swamp maple is distributed widely over 
the state. Its wood is soft, close-grained and weak, and light- 
brown in color. Silver maple is rare, growing on moist lands. 
It has drooping limbs turned up at the tips. The wood of 
maple is used to some extent for furniture, turnery and wood- 
enware. 

Ash. White ash is common to the northern half of the 
state. Its wood is valued for its toughness and flexibility, mak- 
ing it desirable for tool handles, athletic goods such as rackets, 
bats and oars. It is also used for furniture and interior finish. 

Basswood. This is also called linden or lin. The trees 
of this class grow mainly in the mountains. The wood is light, 
soft and tough. It is light-brown in color and is used for 
woodenware, furniture, trunks, excelsior and wood pulp. 

Tupelo. Tupelo gum is found in lowlands along rivers 
and swamps of the coastal plain. The wood is light, soft but 
not strong. It is used for woodenware, cigar boxes, broom 
handles, light vegetable and berry boxes, crates and veneer. 
The wood of the root is very light and is used for floats of 
fish nets. 

Cottonwood. Grows in low, moist land in the lower part 
of the state. Its wood is soft, inclined to warp, and is used 
for veneer, wood pulp and in connection with engraving for 
printed illustrations. 

Walnut. Black walnut grows chiefly on moist, fertile 
slopes of the middle and northern part of the state. The heart- 
wood is a rich, chocolate brown in color, susceptible of high 
polish, and is prized for many uses such as furniture, desks, 
cabinets, gunstocks, airplane propellers, and veneer. The nuts, 
of course, are valuable as food and the tree is desirable for or- 
namental planting. 

27 



Sycamore. The sycamore with its white bark stands out 
conspicuously summer and winter along streams, swamps and 
in ravines and coves in all parts of the state. Its wood is hard 
and moderately strong, but decays rapidly in contact with the 
ground. It is used for veener, tobacco boxes, interior finish, 
butchers blocks and furniture. This tree is extensively planted 
for ornamental purposes. 

Persimmon. This tree is common throughout the state 
except in the high mountains. It is abundant in old fields. The 
wood is hard, dense, heavy and strong. The sap wood is 
white and the heart wood brown or black. It is valuable for 
textile mill equipment such as shuttles, spools and bobbins; 
also for golf stick heads and other special uses. The fruit is 
valuable as food for animals. 

Dogwood. This small tree makes its presence known with 
a burst of beautiful white blossoms in the spring throughout 
the state. Its close-grained, hard wood is in demand for cot- 
ton-mill uses as is persimmon, but it is also used for turnery, 
handles, and so forth. For ornamental purposes the dogwood 
is highly prized. 

Willow. Black willow is found along streams in all parts 
of the state. Its wood is soft, light, but not strong, varying in 
color from light-brown to nearly black. Its wood is used to 
produce high grade charcoal, for making artificial limbs and 
turnery. Its twigs are used for plaiting to make rip rap for 
use along streams to prevent swift currents from cutting into 
the banks. 

Other trees than these mentioned are used for lumber, posts, 
crossties and the like, but are not of sufficient importance to 
be ranked among the leading commercial trees of Georgia of 
which this publication treats. 

Forest Thinning 
The chief reason for thinning is to help the forest area to 

28 



produce a maximum amount of merchantable timber, just as 
we thin corn and cotton stalks to space the plants so they will 
produce the largest crop yields. 

Left to themselves, trees vie with each other for the soil fer- 
tility, soil moisture and sunlight until the stronger suppress the 
weaker. That is the way nature does thinning, but man can 
improve on that. 

Undesirable, or the least valuable, trees can be removed to 
give the more desirable trees a chance to grow faster. Mature 
trees, that is trees that have attained full growth, can be har- 
vested to give the young tree a chance. Diseased or damaged 
trees can be taken out for the sake of the healthy trees. The 
main objective in thinning is to give trees space for rapid, full 
development. 

Thinning Pines. Pines usually come up thickly. To cause 
the trees to grow up into straight, clean, tall trunks, it is es- 
sential that they be allowed to grow thickly until they have 
attained about four to six inches in diameter. By so doing 
the process of natural pruning takes place. At this size the 
thinnings have a market value as poles, pulp wood, fence posts 
and firewood, and instead of thinning being an expense, it will 
be a source of profit. At times, however, pines may be so 
thick that it will be necessary to thin before they gain com- 
mercial size. 

At the first thinning about 450 trees may be left per acre. 
As the trees mature other thinnings will be needed. Trees 
suitable for turpentining may be turpentined and then used 
for lumber, poles, pulp wood or fire wood. This leaves other 
trees room for the fullest growth and also provides more room 
for young growth to come on for the future forest. 

Thinning Hardwoods. Hardwoods usually grow in mixed 
stands, often having pines interspersed. The problem of thin- 
ning involves the question of what the owner prefers to grow, 
and his decision will naturally be to promote the growth of the 

29 



tree that will produce wood for which he has the best mar- 
ket. The conditions may be such that more than one species 
of tree in the forest area should be promoted by thinning. 

In selecting the trees to be removed one should consider cut- 
ting out mature trees, suppressed trees, diseased trees, crooked 
trees and undesirable species of trees that are interfering with 
the growth of desirable trees. 

The next consideration should be to remove trees that are 
in too thick a stand to permit of satisfactory growth. This 
leads to the question: "How thick should hardwood trees be 
for proper growth?" 

A good rule to follow is to have the trees at least far 
enough apart so that their crowns barely touch. As the trees 
continue to grow, some will overtop and begin to crowd out 
others. In such cases, remove the least thrifty tree. In case 
the tree that is being crowded out is more desirable than its 
competitor, preserve it and cut out the less desirable tree. It 
will thus be seen that thinning should be continued from time 
to time as trees crowd each other. 

It is, of course, always desirable to have a market or use 
for the thinned timber, whether as lumber, poles, fence posts, 
wood pulp or firewood. Before beginning to thin it is well to 
arrange for the best disposal of the cut timber. 

Suggestions 

Face pines for turpentine in the turpentine belt. Compare 
usual method with French method. Compare the yield care- 
fully. 

Note the rate of growth of pines faced on one side as com- 
pared with trees faced on two sides; faced in the ordinary way 
as compared with the French method; and growth of properly 
turpentined tree as compared to one -not turpentined. 

30 



Compare turpentine yield of trees subject to forest fires 
with those not subject to fires. 

Measure carefully the circumference of different trees each 
year at 4 1-2 feet high to note rate of growth. Measure ex- 
treme length each year. 

How many kinds of hardwood used commercially can be 
found in a determined distance of the school? 

Which tree in your school forest has the hardest wood? 
Which will split the easiest? Which will make the best han- 
dles? The best mallets? 

Designate trees that it is thought might be removed for 
thinning purposes. 

Suggest the best uses of trees that could be removed in 
thinning. 



PART IV 

Estimating Standing Timber 

To sell standing timber intelligently one must know how 
to estimate the board feet of lumber or cords of wood or cross- 
ties, as the market may demand. It is not difficult to learn 
enough about estimating to at least have a fair idea of the forest 
resources. 

In estimating large timber areas, the plan is to take typi- 
cal section and figure the whole on that basis. 

Definitions 

It is essential to have a few facts to use in estimating stand- 
ing timber. 

A board foot is equivalent to a board one inch thick by 
one foot square. 

31 



A cord of wood is 128 cubic feet. Expressed another way, 
a pile of wood 4 feet high, 4 feet wide and 8 feet long makes 
a cord. A cord of wood averages about 500 board feet, vary- 
ing more or less according to the size and shape of the sticks. 

A standard crosstie is 6 inches by 8 inches by 8 feet in di- 
mensions and 7x9 inches by 81 feet. 

In estimating the volume of trees, a diameter measurement 
is made 4 1-2 feet above the ground. This is called Diameter 
Breast High and is referred to as DBH measurement. 

In estimating the area covered it will be convenient to know 
that a strip 66 feet wide (a chain) and 660 feet long makes 
an acre. A circle whose radius is 59 feet will make one-fourth 
of an acre. A square 208.71 feet in dimensions makes an acre. 

Tree Measurements for Lumber 

While there are instruments for estimating the board feet 
volume of a tree by merely taking a diameter measurement 4 1-2 
feet high, using different figures for each species, for beginners 
it is doubtless better to follow the jmethod of taking diameter 
and height measurements and using standard volume tables 
that have been worked out for the purpose. 

In taking the height measurement, one of several measur- 
ing sticks can be used, the one most commonly used in the 
South being the Biltmore stick. Another device is the hyp- 
someter recommended by the United States Forest Service. Full 
directions for the use of these instruments come with them. 
The estimator stands a given distance from the base of the 
tree, holds the stick at arm's length, the lower end of the 
stick sighted so as to be in line with the eye and the base of 
the tree. The figures on the stick in line with the eye and the 
uppermost part of the tree suitable for a log will give what is 
desired. Log lengths of 16 feet and half log lengths of 8 feet 
are usually employed in these estimates. 

32 



The breast high measurement (4 1-2 feet) of the diame- 
ter of the tree can be made with a carpenter's square, but with 
calipers it can be made more conveniently, if not more accu- 
rately. The calipers is similar to the carpenter's square ex- 
cept that it has two arms instead of one, one of these arms 
being movable so as to quickly adjust to the tree and record the 
diameter. 

With the height and diameter determined, the next step is 
to consult the volume tables above referred to, one for hard- 
wood and another for pine. The volume of board feet is given 
in the table. This can be set down on a card made for the 
purpose, and then one can go on to the next tree. 

If a strip 66 feet wide and 660 feet long is estimated, one 
acre is covered. If this is a typical area, one may multiply the 
amount of board feet in this acre by 4 to get an estimate for 
four acres. On large areas, estimates are made by strips and 
the area between the strips is figured in on the same basis. For 
the average farm wood lot it will be advisable to cover the en- 
tire area. 

Further details of measuring board feet of standing timber 
are not given here, for the reason that a manual will be re- 
quired, showing tables, when the actual work is undertaken in 
the forest. 

Tree Measurements for Cords 

To find volume of standing trees in terms of cords, one 
can eliminate the board feet in the trunk of the tree as given 
above and roughly estimate the cords by dividing by 500 
since an average of 500 board feet make a cord. Then for es- 
timating the cordwood yield of the remainder of the trees, it 
can be considered that for every thousand board feet of lumber 
a tree contains, there will be three-fourths of a cord in the tops 
or limbs of hardwood trees, and one cord for pines or conifers 

33 



in general. This may be said to be a method for a rough esti- 
mate but it is sufficient for general purpose. A more elabo- 
rate method for estimating the cubic contents of trees and the 
limbs that can be used would require considerable time and ex- 
pense. 

Estimating Crossties. One can measure the height of a 
tree and estimate how many cuts eight feet in length will pro- 
duce pieces 6 by 8 inches or other dimensions the purchaser 
may desire. With experience, a close estimate can be made with 
the eye without detail measurement. 

Estimating Poles. Poles should be cut according to the 
specifications of the purchaser. Ordinarily, the length is from 
30 to 40 feet, but some longer or shorter poles are often desired. 
A pole 30 feet high should be 6 1-2 to 7 1-2 inches in diam- 
eter at the top. The diameter at the base of the pole may vary 
from 20 to 30 inches or more. The longer the pole the greater 
may be the diameter at the butt. 

With a little practice, one can easily approximate with the 
eye the length of pole a tree will produce. 



Methods of Cutting Trees 

Much waste of valuable wood is lost by cutting trees too 
high above the ground. A foot from the ground, or even 
lower, is a proper practice. 

The length of logs should be in conformity with the de- 
mand of the market. The standard length is 16 feet, but 
rather than waste any part of the log, 12 foot, 10 foot or 8 
foot logs may be cut at the top. 

Much standing timber is sold to saw mill operators on the 
"stumpage" basis; that is, the mill people do the cutting. Often 

34 



the saw mill people cut small timber that should be left for 
further growth. They do not always fell the trees and remove 
the logs with proper care for prevention of damage to the young 
trees. Therefore, it is usually better for the owner to harvest 
the logs and haul them to the mill or to the railroad. 

Many timber owners in Georgia are finding a market for 
wood or tops of trees, fallen trees, trees that are to be removed 
in thinning and for species of trees not fit for lumber, by sell- 
ing them to paper mills. This not only provided a market for 
what has been considered waste materials but encourages proper 
forest management. 

Trees can usually be harvested with greatest convenience 
during the fall or winter. As soon as possible the logs, poles, 
crossties, or cord wood should be removed from the woods to 
sunny, airy places, else decay or insect damage will set in and re- 
duce their value. 

Logs of large size will bring more than small logs of equal 
grade. Three grades of logs are recognized in some places. No. 

1 are logs 10 inches and over in diameter with surface and ends 
clear of defects. No. 2 must not have more than three stand- 
ard defects or should be only slightly wormy. No. 3 are logs 
falling below No. 2, being crooked, rotten, etc. 

Defects that determine grade are knots, rot, fire scars, worm- 
holes, stain and crookedness. As a rule a No. 1 grade may 
have two small limb knots, but two large knots make it No. 

2 or cull if at each end or No. 3 grade. Defects that are re- 
moved with the slab in sawing are not considered. 

It will be desirable if one is cutting logs to be converted 
into lumber for home use to know about how many board feet 
a log will produce. This is ascertained by obtaining the di- 
ameter of the log inside of the bark at its small end and using 
a log rule table. In Georgia the Doyle rule is legal. The table 
is as follows: 



35 



DOYLE LOG RULE 



V 

be ^2 
o </) 


Length of log in feet 


^•3 

<L> 


6 


7 


1 

8 I 


9 


10 11 


12 


13 14 
1 


15 


16 


17 


18 


•2 6 h 










Contents c 


>f log in board feet 









6 


1 


2 


2 


2 


2 


3 


3 


3 


3 


4 


4 


4 


4 


7 


3 


4 


4 


5 


5 


6 


7 


7 


8 


8 


9 


10 


10 


8 


6 


7 


8 


9 


10 


11 


12 


13 


14 


15 


16 


17 


18 


9 


9 


11 


12 


14 


16 


17 


19 


20 


22 


23 


25 


27 


28 


10 


13 


16 


18 


20 


22 


25 


27 


29 


31 


34 


36 


38 


40 


11 


18 


21 


24 


28 


31 


34 


37 


40 


43 


46 


49 


52 


55 


12 


24 


28 


32 


36 


40 


44 


48 


52 


56 


60 


64 


68 


72 


13 


30 


35 


40 


46 


51 


56 


61 


66 


71 


76 


81 


86 


91 


14 


37 


44 


50 


56 


62 


69 


75 


81 


87 


94 


100 


106 


112 


15 


45 


53 


60 


68 


76 


83 


91 


98 


106 


113 


121 


129 


136 


16 


54 


63 


72 


81 


90 


99 


108 


117 


126 


135 


144 


153 


162 


17 


63 


74 


84 


95 


106 


116 


127 


137 


148 


158 


169 


180 


190 


18 


73 


86 


98 


110 


122 


135 


147 


159 


171 


184 


196 


208 


220 


19 


84 


98 


112 


127 


141 


155 


159 


183 


197 


211 


225 


239 


253 


20 


96 


112 


128 


144 


160 


176 


192 


208 


224 


240 


256 


272 


288 


21 


108 


126 


144 


163 


181 


199 


217 


235 


253 


271 


289 


307 


325 


22 


121 


142 


162 


182 


202 


223 


243 


263 


283 


304 


324 


344 


364 


23 


135 


158 


180 


203 


226 


248 


271 


293 


316 


338 


361 


384 


406 


24 


150 


175 


200 


225 


250 


275 


300 


325 


350 


375 


400 


425 


450 


25 


165 


193 


220 


248 


276 


303 


331 


358 


386 


413 


441 


469 


496 


26 


181 


212 


242 


272 


302 


333 


369 


393 


423 


454 


484 


514 


544 


27 


198 


231 


264 


298 


331 


364 


397 


430. 


463 


496 


529 


562 


595 


28 


216 


252 


288 


324 


360 


396 


432 


468 


504 


540 


576 


612 


648 


29 


234 


273 


312 


352 


391 


430 


469 


508 


547 


586 


625 


664 


702 


30 


253 


296 


338 


380 


422 


465 


507 


549 


591 


634 


676 


718 


760 


31 


273 


319 


364 


410 


456 


501 


547 


592 


638 


683 


729 


775 


820 


32 


294 


343 


392 


441 


490 


539 


588 


637 


686 


735 


784 


833 


882 


33 


315 


368 


420 


473 


526 


578 


631 


683 


736 


788 


841 


894 


946 


34 


337 


394 


450 


506 


562 


619 


675 


731 


787 


844 


900 


956 


1,012 


35 


360 


420 


480 


541 


601 


661 


721 


781 


841 


901 


961 


1,021 


1,081 


36 


384 


448 


512 


576 


640 


704 


768 


832 


896 


960 


1,024 


1,088 


1,152 


37 


408 


476 


544 


613 


681 


749 


817 


885 


953 


1,021 


1,089 


1,157 


1,225 


38 


433 


506 


578 


650 


722 


795 


867 


939 


1,011 


1,084 


1,156 


1,228 


1,300 


39 


459 


536 


612 


689 


766 


842 


919 


995 


1,072 


1,148 


1,225 


1,302 


1,378 


40 


486 


567 


648 


729 


810 


891 


972 


1,053 


1,134 


1,215 


1,296 


1,377 


1,458 



36 



Marketing Forest Products 

If tomorrow you had to face the responsibility of mar- 
keting your forest products, how would you go about it? 
You would probably want to know first the uses to which 
your various kinds of wood can be put. This information 
could be obtained free from the office of the State Forester at 
Atlanta by asking for a bulletin entitled "Uses of Georgia 
Woods." This publication very conveniently contains the 
names of wood manufacturers, saw mill operators and whole- 
sale and retail lumber, millwork and log dealers, from which 
list you can pick the firms you think would likely be inter- 
ested in your products. 

In looking over the bulletin and observing the various users 
of woods, you may decide that some veneer manufacturing 
concern or some furniture company or other manufacturer 
would be interested in your forest products and pay a better 
price than a nearby saw mill. You would then write to find 
out what the offers would be for the species of trees and size 
and grade of logs that you have for sale. 

In harvesting your timber some cordwood could be pro- 
duced. Find out what the nearest paper mill would pay for it 
loaded at your nearest railroad station. It may, however, turn 
out that the tops and waste timber can be sold in town as fire- 
wood to best advantage. 

You would also survey your land for poles and crossties 
production and get in touch with the market to obtain their 
specifications and prices. 

When these steps have been taken you are then prepared 
to go to work with saw and axe to harvest your timber and 
make shipments. 

37 



Reforesting 

All old fields abandoned for farm cropping should go back 
to forests. Perhaps many fields of too low producing power to 
make their cultivation profitable should also go back to forest. 
There are cut-over forest lands that are not reforesting them- 
selves, or that may be starting growth of undesirable trees, that 
need reforesting. Then there is always need for tree planting 
along highways, in parks and on home grounds. 

Two sources of reforesting supplies are available. These 
are the seedlings in the forest which can be replanted, and the 
seedlings raised in a nursery. Of the two, the latter is the bet- 
ter source, for nursery grown seedlings are usually stronger and 
better rooted and less time is required for transplanting. 

Collecting Seed. When pine cones turn brown in the fall 
they can be gathered, placed on a canvas in the sun where they 
will open readily. Then the cones can be beaten to dislodge 
the seed. The most economical way is to gather burs from 
fallen tree tops. Often the seed can be beaten out of the cones 
on the fallen tree tops and gathered by holding a bag beneath. 
Pine seed should be fresh when planted on account of their 
rapid deterioration in germinative power. 

The wings of the seed may be removed by rubbing them 
over a screen. A current of air will remove the chaff when 
the seed are tossed into the air. An electric fan can be used, 
and light, worthless seed may also be removed with the chaff. 

Nuts or acorns may be gathered by a canvas kept under the 
tree. 

Poplar seed should be gathered from the first of September 
to the last of October. 

If the seed are to be kept until the spring, put the pine 
seed in airtight fruit jars. Ash and poplar seed may be kept 
in a bag in a dry, cool place. Nuts and acorns should be put 

38 



in a pit, a layer of seed being covered by a layer of dirt of 
equal depth until all are stored. A box may be used in a dry 
cellar with dirt between the layers of seed. 

Seed Nursery. In a frame 4x12 feet in size, 2,000 to 4,000 
pine seedlings, or 400 to 1,500 hardwood seedlings may be 
grown. The frame may be made of strips and wire screen, de- 
tails for which are found in Bulletin No. 4 of the Georgia 
Forest Service, entitled "Forest Planting." 

The time to plant seed is late winter and early spring, Feb- 
ruary 15 to April 30, the earlier date for South Georgia and 
the later date for North Georgia. Seed may be broadcast or 
planted in rows. It is claimed that when seeded in rows it 
will be easier to remove weeds. 

When seed are sown they should be covered very lightly, 
not deeper than one-half their diameters, using sand or sandy 
loam for the covering. 

One-half a pound of slash pine seed (8,000 to 9,000) 
will plant a seed bed 4x12 feet in dimensions and give about 
3,500 well-developed seedlings. One and a half pound of 
longleaf pine seed (about 12,000) will be required for a bed 
4x12 feet which would give 1,500 to 3,000 seedlings. One- 
half a pound of loblolly pine seed (10,000) will sow a bed 
4x12 feet and produce 2,500 to 3,500 seedlings. About one- 
third of a pound of ash seed, one-half a pound of yellow pop- 
lar seed and one-half to a pound of acorns will seed a bed 4x12 
feet. 

Pine seed may be planted in rows six inches apart with 
half inch spacing in the row. Hardwood seed, as a rule, should 
be planted in rows about ten inches apart with one to one and 
a half inches between seed in the row. 

The beds should be kept moist but not wet until the seed 
germinate and then watered occasionalfy to keep the soil from 
becoming too dry. 

39 



The better time for putting out seedlings in the field or for- 
est is in the late winter or early spring though some planting is 
done in the fall. Seedlings started by planting seed in the 
spring can be transplanted the next winter or spring. If seed- 
lings are carried over to the second year before they are planted, 
it is better to transplant them to spaces three inches apart in 
rows wider than they were in the nursery. 

When seedlings are taken from the nursery they should be 
handled carefully to preserve their root systems. They should 
be placed in buckets of water or carried in wet sacks to the field 
for replanting. One can plow two furrows to make a plant- 
ing bed, or merely dig up the ground at intervals and set out 
the seedlings in the soft soil, putting them a little deeper in 
the soil than they were in the nursery. The planting holes 
should be deep enough and wide enough to accommodate the 
roots without crowding. Do not prune off roots or any of 
the tops of year-old seedlings. If any roots are broken, however, 
prune them off. 

Plant pines 6 to 8' feet apart in rows 6 to 8 feet apart. 
Hardwoods may be planted in rows 8 to 10 feet apart and 8 to 
10 feet apart in the row. 

Give the seedlings a chance to grow by keeping fires out 
of the fields, or animals that may tramp on or graze on them. 

Usually there is spare time on the farm for gathering for- 
est seed, conducting a seed nursery and planting some trees each 
year. When this is not practical, seedlings may be obtained 
from the state nursery conducted by the State College of Ag- 
riculture at Athens, Ga., or from commercial tree nurseries. 

Shade and Ornamental Planting 

When planting trees for roadsides and parks the tendency 
is to put out trees several years old and to prune off all limbs. 

40 



Most of such plantings die. The trees as a rule are too large 
when transplanted and, in the second place, the pruning is too 
heavy, these two together causing too great a shock to the tree. 

Much better results are obtained with small trees. Coni- 
fers, which include pine and cedar, should not be planted when 
over a year or two old. However, white pine is an exception 
to this rule and can be two or three years old. 

Oaks, walnuts and other hardwoods having long tap roots 
should not be over a year old, or the seed may be planted in 
the place the tree is to be grown. 

Broadleaf evergreens like magnolias and live oaks, should 
be quite small, better results being obtained when they are only 
about a foot high when planted. 

Water oak, dogwood and other trees with many fibrous 
roots can be planted with success any size up to ten feet high. 

Detailed information about shade tree planting may be ob- 
tained free by writing the Georgia Forest Service. 

Miscellaneous Forest Products 

Mention has been made of marketing trees for lumber, 
cordwood, poles and crossties. In addition, the forest owner 
should study the uses to which his woods may be put and 
find out whether there are opportunities for selling to producers 
of veneer and excelsior. If a market is provided by cooperage 
concerns, chair makers, crate manufacturers or for mine timbers, 
the length of the cuts will be shorter than for lumber. 

Forest By-Products. An owner of a forest will not utilize 
his resources to the greatest advantage unless he makes use of 
any market he can supply for several by-products. He might 
find a desirable market for charcoal which he could produce on 
the place. 

In hardwood areas there may be black walnuts, hickories 

41 



or other nuts that might be sold to advantage. An increas- 
ingly important market for tree seed to be used for reforest- 
ing is developing. An industry of considerable importance in 
some areas is the sale of chestnut wood to tanneries. The bark 
of hemlock and chestnut oak is marketed in the same way. 

Huckleberries, or blueberries, are in demand for food. These 
grow in the forests throughout the state and are easily gathered 
and canned if they can be marketed better in that form. Many 
roots and herbs used in producing medicines may be found in 
Georgia forests. A little effort in learning to identify these 
and in finding buyers will often be worth while. The same 
may be said of edible mushrooms which grow profusely in 
parts of the state. 

The longleaf pine needles, as has been mentioned, are being 
used for making baskets, ornamental holders and art objects. 
They are also used for making charcoal. 

The making of rustic and porch furniture may appeal to 
some forest owners as an enjoyable pastime and is usually quite 
profitable. Cedar, hickory, ash and other hardwoods lend 
themselves to these products, and white oak is used for splints 
to make baskets and the seats of chairs. Some forest owners 
may choose to make billets for bats, spindles or golf clubs and 
so on. 

Many Southern forests have shapely young cedars and pines 
that can be obtained by thinning excessive stands and mar- 
keted at fancy prices for Christmas trees. Holly trees may be 
deprived of some of their limbs for Christmas greens. In the 
mountains are evergreen galax leaves for holiday and florist 
trade. 

In a word, the alert person can find many by-products of 
the forest areas of Georgia. 

42 



Organized Fire Protection 

On account of the great loss to the nation caused by forest 
fires, the national government by the Clark-McNary Act ap- 
propriates funds to the various states to help prevent and con- 
trol forest fires. 

In Georgia, land owners are organized into timber protec- 
tive organizations, the object being to get land owners with 
adjoining properties to form these organizations and co-operate 
in employing modern protective methods. The fire hazard be- 
ing largest in the pine belt of South Georgia, naturally the tim- 
ber protective movement has gained greatest headway in that 
region. Units of 15,000 to 300,000 acres each have been form- 
ed with fire observation towers made of steel and standing 80 
to 1 1 feet high. When the lookout man sees smoke at any 
point in the area, patrolmen, fire fighters and helpers hurry 
to the place to put out the fire. 

To help hold fires in check, firebreaks are constructed 
throughout the forests. A firebreak consists of a strip from 
which trees are removed, furrows plowed on either side of the 
strip and the area in the strip burned clean. These usually 
check the spread of the flames. In hardwood areas of North 
Georgia, trails through the forest are swept clean of leaves to 
check fires and furrows are plowed around the borders. 

The land owners pay the expenses of protecting the or- 
ganized forest areas and the government repays them for a part 
of what they expend. The timber protective organizations 
have been able to very effectively keep down fires at an initial 
cost of about 8 cents an acre, which includes the cost of con- 
structing fire towers. Of course, the cost of subsequent years 
would be much lower. 

Any group of farmers who co-operate in creating a unit of 
10,000 or more acres and employing methods of fire protec- 
tion recommended by the State Forester can obtain govern- 
ment aid. 

43 



National Forests 

The Federal government under the Week's Act, has the 
power to buy forest lands, protect and manage them. This 
does not deprive the country of the use of wood grown on the 
national forests, but the timber is cropped and sold in keeping 
with good forestry practice. Under a Georgia law, national 
forest lands can be acquired only in North Georgia. 

Large national forest areas are held in the mountains of 
North Georgia. The name and area of each national forest in 
Georgia are as follows: 

Cherokee National Forest 109,743 acres 

Nantahala National Forest 97,316 acres 

Total 207,059 acres 

State Forest-Parks 

Georgia is acquiring state forest-parks. The two first for- 
est-parks acquired are Vogel Forest-Park at Neel Gap on Blood 
Mountain, and Indian Springs, near Jackson, Georgia, in Butts 
County. 

Vogel Forest-Park is a picturesque area, visited by tour- 
ists from all parts of the world. This park was donated to 
the state by Honorable Fred Vogel, Jr., of Milwaukee, Wis- 
consin. For this park a lookout fire tower to be located on 
Blood Mountain near the highway at Neel Gap is to be erected 
by members of the American Legion of Georgia. This tower 
is to be made of stone and will stand a perpetual monument 
to Georgians who fought in the World War. 

The Indian Springs property, long famous as a health re- 
sort, was converted into a state forest-park and is now being 
controlled by the Georgia Forest Service. 

Other offers of picturesque or historical places are being 
considered for state forest-parks. 

44 



Suggestions 

Cruise standing timber for estimates of board feet and cord 
wood. Note ratio of lumber to cordwood in pines; in hard- 
woods. 

Conduct tree nursery. 

Reforest old fields with plantings. 

Make tests of different woods of trees to note ability to 
take polish. 

Construct fire breaks. 

Visit a saw mill and study defects of logs. Grade accord- 
ingly. 

Measure the contents of logs. 

Measure the board feet of lumber contained in the logs. 

If possible to obtain equipment, creosote some fence posts. 



45 



May, 1929 



Bulletin 8 



Georgia Forest Service 

B. M. LUFBURROW, State Forester 



The Cellulose Industries 

By 
B. M. LUFBURROW, State Forester 

Cellulose Industries As a Field 
For Georgia Capital 

By 
W. W. Ashe 




The Cellulose Industries 

By B. M. Lufburrow 



When the verbose walrus spoke 

"Of shoes and ships and sealing wax, 
Of cabbages and kings," 

he might have added to the gamut of contrasts — 

"Of silk and alcohol, of ivory and glass, 
Of photographic films and smokeless powder, 
Of paints and pails and paper." 

All the latter are largely forms of cellulose or cellulose com- 
pounds. To name only the most important chemical cellu- 
lose products, there is artificial silk or rayon, flexible glass or 
cellophane, collodion and celluloid: artificial amber, tortoise- 
shell and ivory, photographic films, paints, lacquers and enam- 
els, gun cotton, high explosives and smokeless powders, indu- 
rated ware and vulcanized fibre, paper of all kinds, and wood 
or methyl alcohol. 

The name cellulose is derived from the cellular structure of 
plants. < Plants are built up of minute, mostly elongated boxes 
or tubes, the cells. The framework or skeleton of the walls of 
these cells is called cellulose. In all parts of the world cellulose 
forms a large proportion of the bulk of most trees and plants. 
Whether it be the dwarf birches and willows within the Arctic 
Circle under the colored lights of the aurura borealis, or the 
stately palms of the tropics, their evergreen fronds bathed in 
the sunlight of eternal summer, the framework of all is cellu- 
lose. 

Cellulose in one of its myriad cellular forms is thus uni- 
versal in its distribution, and few parts of the earth lack a suf- 



ficient supply in the form of trees or plants not to justify the 
establishment of factories for its industrial use. Wood is large- 
ly cellulose, but in an impure form. Cotton fibre, the white 
fluffy lint of Dixieland, is essentially a pure natural cellulose. 
Esparto, a grass grown in the Mediterranean countries, is ex- 
tensively used in Western Europe as a commercial source of cel- 
lulose. The bamboos of Asia are likewise a valuable source, 
and even corn stalks are available when they can be assembled 
cheaply enough. An enormous amount of cellulose yearly goes 
to waste in cotton stalks. Grain straws are largely cellulose, 
but they contain a high proportion of silica, a flinty, sand- 
like mineral, which is objectionable. Wood pulp furnishes not 
less than 95 per cent of the cellulose for industrial chemical pur- 
poses and the proportion from this source increases every year 
as greater progress is made in methods of handling it. Al- 
though cellulose is not a food, it forms a part of all grains and 
fruits and a large part of all hay and vegetables, constituting 
what the dietitians call crude fibre, indigestible material, but 
furnishing the food bulk needed for proper health. 

In wood the walls of the cells are stiffened by the deposit 
of cellulose or by the conversion of cellulose into the related 
chemical compound lignin, with cellulose embedded in the lig- 
nin. Lignin forms the center of the cell wall, or the middle 
lamella, which is the first portion of the cell formed from the 
protoplasm. This strata of lignin separates one cell from the 
rdjoining cells. Its function is assumed to be purely physi- 
cal. It produces an increase in the hardness or lignification 
(woodiness) of the cell wall and a resistence to swelling with 
water. Lignification, which is the conversion of the cellulose 
of the cell to lignin, ceases when growth of the cell is complete. 
The pentosans also form a large proportion of the wood tissue, 
and like lignin they seem to have no physiological function, 
such as storing up reserved food or supply materials, but serve 
as a cement to hold the fibres together. 

There are other secondary components of the woody tis- 
sue such as tannins, starch, fats and resins which are within 



the cells. These it is necessary to remove before the cellu- 
lose of wood is in that state of purity which permits its 
uses where exact chemical reaction must be provided 
for. In cellulose chemistry pentosans and lignin are usually 
referred to as beta and gamma cellulose and the real cellulose 
as alpha cellulose. 

The process of pulping, when reduced to its simplest terms, 
is based upon the use of chemicals which will dissolve the lig- 
nin and pentosans (gamma and beta cellulose) and leave the 
cellulose fibres in the form of loose bundles. The lignin and 
pentosans are separated out by hydrolysis or oxidation of cellu- 
lose. Lignin and pentosan are rather terms of physiological bot- 
any. The cellulose chemist considers the woody tissue in relation 
to its reaction to certain chemicals. That portion of the cellulose 
fibre undissolved by a 17.5 per cent solution of sodium hy- 
droxide represents alpha cellulose, which is the cellulose of 
commerce. Pentosan and lignin are the chief constituents re- 
moved as a result of such treatment. If this mixture of pen- 
tosans and lignin is then heated with a 5 per cent solution of 
acetic acid, the beta cellulose is precipitated out. The portion 
remaining is the gamma cellulose of the chemist. 

When carefully manipulated, cotton will yield cellulose 
which has well defined properties containing few impurities. 
For this reason it is the cellulose which is generally accepted as 
the standard. Wood cellulose, irrespective of the species of tree 
from which derived, cannot be isolated in such a state of purity. 
Consequently, wood cellulose is not as homogeneous as that 
derived from cotton. Wood cellulose also varies in its compo- 
sition and purity according to the methods employed in its iso- 
lation. So much so that some investigators have regarded wood 
cellulose as being of different chemical composition from cot- 
ton cellulose. But Bodeker and a number of other cellulose 
chemists regard them as being identical when wood cellulose is 
thoroughly purified, although investigations along this line are 
not yet complete. 



The difficulty of determining the exact chemical nature of 
cellulose is due largely to its collodial properties and to the 
most intimate association of other more or less related com- 
pounds of plant structure which have not yet been successfully 
eliminated so as to procure absolutely pure cellulose. Chemical- 
ly, cellulose is close to starch and like starch, it is nitrogen free, 
although it is produced by protoplasm which is a nitrogenous 
substance of the living cell. From the point of view of pres- 
ent uses and possibilities, and on account of its wide distribu- 
tion, cellulose is commercially the most valuable constituent of 
plant life, outside of the strictly food compounds like starch. 

Unlike many organic compounds, cellulose combines with 
many chemical reagents and can later be recovered from them 
in its original form of cellulose — Resurgit! "Regenerated." 
Yet, notwithstanding its resistance in the laboratory to certain 
classes of chemical action, in nature it readily and most for- 
tunately succumbs to the bacterial ferments and the attacks of 
lower forms of plant life. The cellulose in the leaves and fal- 
len trunks of trees after passing through the stage of humus, 
which is the brown or blackish layer lying immediately be- 
neath the fallen leaves or moss in every unburned woods, is 
eventually reduced by the further action of these organisms to 
the stable forms of water and carbon dioxide from which it 
was originally built up. Earth to earth; carbon dioxide to car- 
bon dioxide. There was a period, however, in our geological 
history, while our coal deposits were being formed by the ac- 
cumulated stems of trees, when this decay proceeded far more 
slowly than at present. 

Rayon of Wood Silk 

Rayon is the spruce tree silk. Its manufacture dates back 
only about two decades, yet today as a textile material it is 
surpassed only by cotton and wool. It already outranks both 
silk and linen. It is adapted to the manufacture of a wide 
range of woven and knit goods. It has a high luster, or can 



be made with slight luster or even with a dull finish if desired. 
It can be used alone or in mixture with cotton, wool, silk or 
any two of them. It takes dyes well, and as a substitute for 
silk has the advantage for many uses in being free from the 
attacks of moths. 

The original process for making cellulose yarn was develop- 
ed in France. What is known as the viscose process was de- 
veloped in Great Britain by the industrial chemists Cross and 
Bevans. The latter is the more widely employed process. A large 
amount of cotton linters is employed in the manufacture of 
rayon but purified wood pulp is also extensively used. 

For making rayon, cellulose that is largely free of all non- 
cellulose compounds, such as starches, resins, lignin, and pen- 
tose, is treated with reagents to convert it into a gelatinous 
mass. The most widely used gelatinizing agent is carbon bi- 
sulphide, the employment of which is known as the viscose 
process; ammoniacal copper oxide may be used as the solvent; 
or, as in the original Chardonnet process, it r may be a low ni- 
trate solution, the threads subsequently being denitrated. The 
jelly which results from the action of these agents is forced 
through minute holes which are drilled perfectly round. The 
fine threads thus formed emerge into a solution which causes 
rhe jelly to coagulate or solidify, and in so doing to revert to 
the original cellulose. In another process, the cellulose treated 
with acetic acid compound becomes and remains an acetate of 
cellulose. The fine threads, as they are drawn through the 
hardening bath, represent only the first stage in the produc- 
tion of rayon. It is subjected to many other processes before 
it is eventually placed upon the shop counters as the strong 
but silky material of commerce. 

The thread of yarn which is used in woven or knit goods 
is not a single solid filament. It consists of a number of fine 
strands which are twisted together, the number varying with 
the size of the yarn. 



But viscose has a wide range of uses other than for tex- 
tiles. It is formed into the thin transparent sheets known as 
cellophane and into viscose caps which are being made on a 
large scale. Viscoid is made from viscose, being imitation 
horsehair for upholstery and artificial wool, the thread being 
formed with a minute hole in its center like miniature maca- 
roni. Among other extensive uses are as a filler in connection 
with the dyeing, printing and finish applied to textile fabrics; 
as a sizing material for laid papers; as a filler and sur- 
facing material of cloth for binding books; and as a covering 
for waterproof and washable window shades. 

Paper and Cellulose 

The largest use of elaborated cellulose is for paper. Its 
employment, however, for this purpose, is less spectacular than 
its use for rayon ; less of the marvelous to it than the making 
of a flexible glass from an opaque brittle base; less wonderful 
than the production of highly dangerous explosives, for paints 
and ivory, all from the same material which has served for the 
fuels of mankind since Prometheus snatched fire from heaven 
and man smothered his terror sufficiently to employ it as a 
beneficial agent. But cheap paper, abundant cheap paper, has 
been one of the most important factors in the development of 
modern civilization. 

The total world-wide production of paper is in excess of 
fifteen million tons, having an aggregate value in excess of 
$800,000,000 a year. The ranking producing countries are 
the United States, which makes more than half of the total 
world's output, and Canada, the United Kingdom and Ger- 
many, which together produce one-fourth. The remaining one- 
fourth is scattered among all the countries of the world. 

There are two classes of paper. Those which are made of 
commercially pure cellulose, the result of chemical treatment of 
wood, esparto, cotton, rags, straw and bamboo: and those, such 

8 



as newspaper stocks, which consist in part of ground wood 
without preliminary treatment, merely screened and blocked. 

Newsprint paper contains only from fifteen to twenty per 
cent chemical pulp, that is, pure cellulose fibre. While the 
bleached ground wood is largely cellulose, it is associated with 
other compounds which go to make up wood tissue. News- 
print is made largely of merely ground wood, while bleached 
chemical pulp, essentially pure cellulose from which impurities 
or associated compounds have been eliminated by chemical treat- 
ment, might be said to form the entire body of some other 
papers. This chemical pulp is suitable not only for making 
paper, but after purification, for making rayon, flexible glass, 
high explosives, paints, or other cellulose compounds. 

Kraft paper, however, for the making of which the wood 
of the yellow pine is used, is not a pure cellulose material as is 
the case with the other papers which are made from chemically 
prepared pulp. Kraft paper is made from an uncooked pulp, 
digested with sodium sulphate and sulphide liquor, and dis- 
integration of the fibres, in place of being due to prolonged 
chemical treatment, is completed in the beaters and the Jordan 
engines. In the present day process for making Kraft paper, 
most of the turpentine is removed from the chipped wood by 
steaming before chemical treatment. Several valuable by-prod- 
ucts are obtained through the recovery of methyl alcohol, oil of 
turpentine and various resins. Kraft papers, which are the 
brown wrapping papers, are characterized by their toughness. 

There has been wonderful improvement in the methods of 
making these papers during the last decade. Formerly, it was 
customary to saponify the resins in wood of pines used in mak- 
ing this class of paper, to render them soluble so they could be 
washed out. The cost of chemicals used in this process was 
high and the resins were lost. Even with the most improved 
processes for making paper, large amounts of chemicals are re- 
quired. For converting spruce wood into white paper about 



1,300 pounds of coal, 230 pounds of sulphur and 300 pounds 
of limestone are required to produce one ton of dry pulp from 
about two tons of dry and prepared wood. A cord of dry spruce 
wood weighs about 3,100 pounds, or about one and one-half 
tons. Yellow pine wood is much heavier. The weight of the 
wood of the broad-leaved trees varies widely, some being quite 
light, even lighter than spruce, while other kinds are far heavier 
than even the wood of the yellow pine. 

Of the several chemical processes in use for separating cellu- 
lose from other compounds that form wood, the sulphite 
process is most generally employed, more than two-thirds of 
the world's output of pulp for paper and rayon being so pro- 
duced. By this process wood chips chiefly of spruce or north- 
ern poplars (aspen) are digested or cooked in closed retorts 
with hot bisulphite of lime which is prepared at the pulp mill 
in a special plant known as the acid plant. This liquor dis- 
solves all the constituents of the wood except the cellulose, 
which is resistant, and these dissolved constituents are washed 
out, leaving the pulp as an impure, unbleached cellulose, which 
when bleached, becomes pure chemical cellulose. A cord of 
spruce wood yields by this process about 1150 pounds of 
pulp, so that it might be said that half of the wood used is 
saved as cellulose. The other half of the wood, consisting of 
lignin, pectins (pentosans), etc., known as beta and gamma 
cellulose, is now entirely a waste product. 

The qualities which determine the value of wood for paper 
making are primarily length of the fibre after chemical treat- 
ment, ease with which the wood when subjected to chemical 
treatment or ground, can be disintegrated into separate fibre; 
the readiness with which it can be bleached; the proportion of 
fibre, or pulp, as the treated wood is called, which is obtained; 
and its felting qualities. An essential element in paper making 
is the felting or knitting of the fibre or strands on being de- 
posited from water — the strands must interlock just as in a felt 
hat. 

10 



On account of the evenness of the texture of spruce, its 
large proportion of true cellulose fibre (more than 50 per cent) , 
the length of its fibre (from three to four millimeters), ease 
of bleaching, low loss in digesting with chemicals, and small 
resin content, this tree provides ideal wood for paper making, 
especially ground pulp for newsprint stock. Sulphite cellulose 
pulp fibre made from spruce is the standard. 

It may therefore be said that no other wood is in the same 
class as spruce or can compete with it for the production of 
newsprint paper. Every year newspapers absorb an increas- 
ingly large proportion of the total output of paper and as the 
demands for suitable paper pulp increases, every available source 
of supply is scanned and appraised. But in producing rayon 
the fibre is destroyed in the process of gelatinization; therefore, 
cellulose from any other source is equally serviceable if it can 
be produced as cheaply and with the same standard of purity. 

Pines have very long fibre but their wood is not as uni- 
form in texture or color as spruce. Dense, dark brown rings 
of wood alternate with soft, less dense, pale brown or yellow 
rings. This necessitates chemical treatment to separate the fi- 
bres. It is difficult to bleach the dark brown wood. In addi- 
tion, the wood of the pines contains varying amounts of resin 
which must be eliminated to produce any but lowest grade pa- 
per. The proportion of wood eventually available for white 
paper making is relatively far smaller than in the case of spruce, 
and the processes of converting it are far more costly. 

The wood of many hardwoods, especially the heartwood, 
which is usually of a yellow or brown color, is dififcult to 
bleach; the fibre is short and much of it is so light that it floats 
off in the process of washing or is otherwise lost in the neces- 
sary chemical treatment. The bamboos of eastern and south- 
ern Asia offer an unlimited amount of fibre similar in many 
respects to that of yellow pines and are well suited for the man- 
ufacture of Kraft papers, now that the objectionable dark col- 
oring of their pulp can be avoided through the removal of cer- 

11 



tain ingredients which in process of normal chemical treatment 
were burned a dark brown color. Methods also have been 
found to obviate the necessity of cutting out the knots or joints 
in their stems. 

The advent of wood into the paper field dates only from 
the third quarter of the last century. Since then the processes 
have step by step been improved or replaced by better. Ac- 
companying the improvement in manufacture and cheapening 
of cost, there has been an enormous increase in the use of paper, 
particularly newsprint. Whereas population has trebled in the 
last fifty years, the use of paper in the United States has in- 
creased seven times. How far will this mounting increase ex- 
tend? 

Special Cellulose Industries 

Paper and the textile rayon are essentially pure cellulose, 
an exception being the trade brand known as celanese which 
is a compound of cellulose and acetic acid or wood vinegar. 

A number of special cellulose industries depend not upon 
specific chemical or physical properties of unaltered cellulose, 
but upon the properties of its derivatives or its compounds, such 
as its esters. The esters are etherial salts, that is, combinations 
with either organic or inorganic acids, cellulose behaving as an 
alcohol in chemical reactions. The chief property of these com- 
pounds is their solubility in various alcohol solvents, notably 
in ether-alcohol. 

The two important chemical esters are the nitrates and the 
acetates. Nitrates which are characterized by inflammability 
are formed by the action of nitric acid upon cellulose, there 
being a series of nitrates obtained by varying the length of the 
period of the action of the acid. They are the basis of collo- 
dion, of celluloid, of the nitrates employed in the production 
of artificial silk by the Chardonnet process, and in making high 
explosives. The explosive propensity or inflammability is 

12 



increased by prolonging, the action of the nitric acid, which 
increases the proportion of the nitric acid component. 

The acetates of cellulose are parallel materials to the ni- 
trates with closely similar properties, but less inflammable. The 
chief bar to their wider adoption has been their price, but de- 
velopments in methods of handling the acetylation reaction so 
as to recover the acetate values remaining in the reaction mix- 
tures, have resulted in greatly cheapening costs. They are now 
being generally employed in making a rayon textile, in paints, 
in photographic films, and for other purposes. 

Photographic and Movie Films 

The first flexible photographic plates were made of collo- 
dion on which gelatin emulsion was spread which was then 
photo sensitized. The cellulose film was a decided improve- 
ment since it permitted the film to be rolled. The early cellu- 
lose films, however, were made of highly inflammable cellu- 
lose nitrates. They were dangerous and there was risk in using 
them in commercial moving pictures. Another defect which 
users of rolled films will remember in the first decade of the 
present century, was the manner in which the films curled up 
after being developed. This made it extremely difficult to 
handle them. Often after they became old they were extreme- 
ly brittle and would frequently tear or break. This trouble 
which was due to greater tension on one side of the film than 
the other as a result of the coating, was overcome. 

Next, the cellulose acetate film was substituted for the py- 
roxylin. This greatly reduced danger from inflammability. 
The troubles with the acetate films were their stiffness and 
brittleness, also their high cost. It was some time before the 
problem of stiffness was solved. Now acetate films are com- 
ing into general and standard use. Their durability, greater 
flexibility and lower cost, have made them commercially ac- 
ceptable. 

13 



Hygienic Sausage Casings 

Another use for sheet cellulose is in making casings for 
stuffed sausage. Sausages put up in this material are sold as 
skinless, the casing being so thin that it is scarcely noticed when 
the sausage is eaten. When browned by cooking the skin be- 
comes fragile and tender. These casings are made of a cellulose 
film which is less than one-thousandth of an inch in thickness. 
Now that the wiener skin can be made of sanitary cellulose, we 
may look for the "hot-dog" stands to reach a higher sanitary 
standard. 

Trunks and SxMokeless Powders 

Vulcanized fibre is a trade name for a composition board 
made from heavy paper or paper boards treated with zinc chlo- 
ride solvents, the sheets being cemented together by means of 
the solvent which is afterwards washed out. Vulcanized fibre 
is used for making trunks, packing cases for traveling men, hat 
boxes, washers for faucets and for electrical insulation. Arti- 
cles like pails, waste baskets, etc., can be pressed into shape in a 
single piece, this adding materially to their strength and dura- 
bility. 

If cotton as a textile material has been among the fore- 
most products of the world in ministering to the comfort of 
mankind, it likewise, as the foundation for gun cotton and 
smokeless powders, has been one of the important instruments 
in destroying civilization so slowly built up. Gun cotton, made 
by treating purified cotton with nitric acid, is a dangerous form 
of cellulose to handle, but it was discovered that it could be 
dissolved in alcohol compounds or ethers, with which it formed 
a jelly. While in the jelly stage it can be moulded or cut into 
shapes and sizes required for use as an explosive. After the 
evaporation of the solvent it then again becomes a solid, retain- 
ing its shape, and is more easily handled than in the form of 
gun cotton. Also, while in the jelly stage it is less explosive 

14 



than while in the dry form. This material is combined with 
nitro glycerine forming the base of a number of smokeless pow- 
ders having somewhat different properties, but each with a ni- 
tro-cellulose component. 

It is stated that the surplus stock of nitro-cellulose left on 
the hands of manufacturers of war explosives was largely re- 
sponsible for the development of the pyroxylin or nitro-cellu- 
lose paints. Nitro-cellulose compounds, as stated, were original- 
ly prepared for making smokeless powders and other wartime 
propellants, but when there was no longer a call for them after 
the World War, these enormous stocks were a source of dan- 
ger. It was necessary to find some profitable use to which they 
could be converted. The outcome was the development of cel- 
lulose paints, which was done by modifying the nitric acid con- 
tent so as to reduce inflammability and by the incorporation 
of paint pigments. The difficulty of applying this material 
was overcome by spraying in place of spreading with brushes. 
The use of these paints greatly reduced the time required for 
painting automobiles. Even the tin "Lizzie" required a cer- 
tain amount of luster to sell it. Two coats of oil paint re- 
quire several days in the paint shop, but with the pyroxylin 
paints, four coats can be applied within as many hours. 

Through the admixture of castor oil, these pyroxylin com- 
pounds remain plyant upon drying. This permitted cloth to 
be waterproofed by a coating of them, or the cloth could even 
be built up in thickness and grained in imitation of leather. 
Such cloth is used for covering automobiles, and for covering 
trunks and bags, while the imitation leather is extensively used 
in upholstery. Specially prepared cloth is similarly coated for 
window shades, while still other kinds serve as covering for 
backs of books, or in place of wall paper for bathrooms or 
where a washable wall covering is desired. 

Ivory and Pearls 
Celluloid was developed as a cellulose compound about the 

15 



middle of the last century. When its commercial manufac- 
ture had been cheapened, there was an era of the celluloid col- 
lar and cuffs — indestructible apparel — designed to reduce the 
laundryman to penury and outwit the haberdashery makers of 
Troy. Mais, e'est a rire! The table is turned, for rayon cel- 
lulose has now been adopted by the shirt making fraternity as 
a seductive material for a silk craving male; and as the hick of 
the burlesque stage was supposed to ablute his celluloid clothes 
over the tin pan on the back porch, so now our Cinderella 
nightly cleanses at least her wood-cellulose hose in the home 
lavatory, dries them on her private clothes line and is the princess 
in them the next day. 

Cellulose might be considered as the earliest of the pyroxy- 
lin plastics. From it there has been gradually developed an 
enormous industry manufacturing articles from a composition 
produced by a mixture of nitro-cellulose, camphor and alcohol. 
These compounds form the artificial ivories, the imitation am- 
ber, imitation shells and pearls and are employed for making 
a wide and wonderfully beautiful range of toilet articles of in- 
finite shades, opaque or translucent, dull or brilliant, to meet 
the demands of style or the whims of fancy. Among some 
of the articles which are made may be mentioned umbrella han- 
dles, bag frames, toilet sets, bracelets, necklaces, imitation stones 
for breast pins, ear rings, buttons, fountain pens, optical frames 
and knife handles. And when noting the varied array of these 
beautiful articles in the display case of a store, consider that 
their base may be Georgia cotton elaborated through the knowl- 
edge of the chemist and wrought into a form designed by an 
artist. 

Wood Alcohol 

And then there is methyl alcohol, so often referred to in 
the newspapers, and familiarly known as wood alcohol, its 
imbibers becoming — like cupid and like even-handed justice — 
sightless. A most valuable industrial product with a range of 

16 



industrial uses, it is fortunately referred to as an alcohol rather 
than by its chemical cognomen of methyl, for if it were not 
sold as an alcohol, its employment in a poisonous, if not fatally 
blinding beverage, would be less frequent. It is a distillate of 
the cellulose of wood, the chief other product being acetate of 
lime (acetic acid) which, combined with cellulose as its acetate, 
forms one of the most valuable of the cellulose esters. 

Who Owns the Cellulose Industries 

Plants for the manufacture of rayon are built in large and 
expensive units. Those in the United States are largely con- 
trolled by American capital operating, however, under foreign- 
owned patents. But considerable foreign capital is also invest- 
ed in American rayon factories. The Hercules Powder Com- 
pany, duPonts and other makers of high explosives are inter- 
ested in cellulose for such products as have a nitro-cellulose 
base, but the duPonts especially have widely ramifying inter- 
ests in other lines of manufacture, particularly paints, celophane 
and pyraline or imitation ivory, which make extensive use of 
this compound. 

As having a bearing upon the subject of the ownership 
and control of the world wide rayon industry, the following 
is quoted, with slight changes, from a recent report on the sub- 
ject, "International Cartels," issued by the Department of Com- 
merce, June, 1928: 

"The so-called international rayon cartel is, strictly speak- 
ing, not a formal cartel, at least, the information so far revealed 
does not indicate a specific understanding regarding limitation of 
production, although there is a very definite agreement or 'con- 
vention' on prices. The declared object of the cartel is to elim- 
inate harmful competition through an agreement on prices and 
a certain specialization in marketing, without a definite terri- 
torial division, and an improvement of the product through in- 
terchange of patents and technical improvements and processes. 

17 



This is further strengthened by the rather close financial inter- 
relation between members, extending in some cases to joint 
ownership of plants and in others to practical control. This 
feature, combined with the fact that the two most important 
members of the combination, Courtaulds and the Vereinigte 
Glanzstoff, have branch plants or closely affiliated plants, in 
the important consuming markets of the world, would ac- 
count for the fact that this apparently loose international or- 
ganization is, with some justice, regarded as coming closer to an 
international trust than any other known international cartel. 

"The rayon industry has had an international character 
frqm the time it emerged from the experimental stage. This 
was due not only to the patent factor, which is of extreme 
importance, but also to the fact that the manufacture requires 
large amounts of capital for experimental work, as well as for 
the actual production. It is a very mobile industry from the 
raw material standpoint and the distribution of plants has been 
largely determined by the initiative of capital, consuming ca- 
pacity of market, tariff policies, and availability of labor. 

"Although the so-called working agreement between the 
largest producers — Courtaulds (Great Britain) , Vereinigte 
Glanzstoff (Germany), and Snia Viscosa (Italy) — was con- 
cluded at the beginning of 1927, an agreement between the 
first two groups dates at least from 1925, as evidenced by the 
organization of the Courtaulds-Glanzstoff plant near Cologne; 
the establishment of close relations with the largest Dutch pro- 
ducer, Enka, also preceded the larger combination. The un- 
usually rapid progress of the Snia Viscosa, due to a consider- 
able extent to the favorable labor factor, was arrested toward 
the end of 1926 by the Italian currency situation and other fi- 
nancial difficulties, which gave the British and German groups 
an opportunity to acquire sufficient holdings in the Italian con- 
cern to assure its entry into the combination. It is claimed by 
some that the control of the Snia is now in the hands of the 
Courtaulds-Glanzstoff pool. The consolidation of the French 

18 



producers during the second half of 1927 marked the rise of 
another strong competitor, with the result that at present there 
is in existence a working agreement on prices, domestic mar- 
kets, patents and technical processes and improvements, affect- 
ing between 80 and 90 per cent of the world rayon produc- 
tion. 

"A number of factors in the rayon situation need pointing 
out to indicate the full significance of the concentration move- 
ment. In the first place, the international working agreement 
affects primarily the production of rayon by the viscose proc- 
ess, comprising 80 to 90 per cent of world production. The 
most important producers of acetate rayon, like British cela- 
nese, are not members of the combination, although the Vere- 
inigte Glanzstoff is also interested in the production of acetate 
rayon, in combination with the I. G. Farbeinindustrie, through 
joint ownership of the Aceta plant; and it is claimed by some 
that the partial adherence of the Belgian Tubize interests and 
the relations between the Verinigte Glanzstoff and the I. G. 
Farbeinindustrie bring the viscose combination rather close to 
the important non-viscose producers. 

"There is one feature about the international rayon agree- 
ment that is of particular interest to the student of the indus- 
trial development of the United States. The rayon industry 
represents the striking anomaly of an American industry pro- 
ducing more and consuming more of a staple manufactured prod- 
uct than any other country in the world, that is either affiliated 
with or controlled by foreign interests, that is, by Courtaulds 
(Great Britain) and Vereinigte Glanzstoff-Bemberg (Ger- 
many) , and leading members of the international combination. 
This condition is explained primarily by the fact that the basic 
patents of the industry are largely of European origin and that 
the European producer displayed considerable initiative and en- 
terprise in taking advantage of the possibilities of the American 
market. 



19 



"Another important point is that the headquarters of the 
most important members of the international group are lo- 
cated to a considerable extent outside of the countries in which 
they have their principal plants. The interests of the Court- 
aulds in the United States, for instance, are vested in its sub- 
sidiary, the American Viscose Corporation, which is responsi- 
ble for about 55 per cent of the country's total production; and 
operations in Canada, India, Spain, Norway, Germany, France, 
Czecho-Slovakia, etc., are more important collectively from a 
production standpoint, than this concern's plants in England. 

"Although the foreign interests of the German group (Vere- 
inigte Glanzstoff) are less extensive, this concern is interested 
in important plants in the United States, Japan, Austria, 
Czecho-Slovakia, and the Netherlands, in addition to having fi- 
nancial interests in the J. P. Bamberg A. G., the second largest 
producer in Germany, which also has some foreign branches. 
The same situation exists to some extent with Italian and French 
producers. 

"It will therefore be seen that the rayon combination is a 
world combination, one of the most comprehensive as to the 
proportion of production controlled, as well as one of the most 
intimate from a financial standpoint, considering the number 
of countries involved. 

"Considering that this degree of centralization has been at- 
tained by an industry whose total production in 1896 amount- 
ed to only 600 metric tons, as compared with 120,000 tons 
estimated in 1927, there is some justification for the statement 
that the international rayon cartel, in spite of the exceptional 
nature of the rayon industry which makes it particularly adapt- 
ed to international combinations, cannot be regarded merely as 
an exceptional development, but rather as a striking manifesta- 
tion of the movement toward centralization characteristic of 
modern industry." 

20 



CELLULOSE INDUSTRIES AS A FIELD 
FOR GEORGIA CAPITAL 

• By W. W. Ashe 

The State of Georgia is rich in cellulose yielding materials 
but the amount of chemically elaborated cellulose made in the 
state is small. 

In Georgia the most important raw cellulose material is 
cotton. Low-grade cotton forms the basis of an enormous 
number of cellulose articles. Nevertheless, there are in Georgia 
only a few plants engaged or preparing to engage in the elabo- 
ration of cellulose from cotton. Of these, the most important 
are the nitro-explosive plant at Brunswick and the rayon plant 
at Rome. 

An unlimited and, so far as the State of Georgia is con- 
cerned, a practically untouched cellulose field is the native 
woods. The wood of all the native pines is about 45 per cent 
cellulose. The pines are distributed over the whole of Geor- 
gia. On the slopes of the mountains grows the white pine, and 
at lower altitudes the yellow pines extend over the state to the 
coast. Many broad-leaved trees likewise might be made sources 
of cellulose, such as yellow poplar, which is found throughout 
the state, and the bays and gums which form a large portion 
of the timber of the swamps of the eastern and southern coun- 
ties. 

Although cotton has been the backbone of southern pros- 
perity, there is throughout its realm no laboratory or chair at 
any institution devoted to extending the use of cotton through 
chemical research. If today there is an enlarged market for cotton 
linters as a result of the manufacture of rayon, this widened 
field is due to no process developed by the initiative of cotton 
interests. 



21 



Need of Research 

To develop adequately the cellulose chemical industries, re- 
search work must be established and maintained. This will 
provide facilities not only for placing before the engineers and 
chemists complete information in regard to commercial proc- 
esses but for testing out and developing new processes. Such 
research could go far toward establishing cellulose industries in 
the state. This would open up new and profitable channels 
for the marketing of Georgia wood and assist in rehabilitating 
the declining agriculture of the state. 

Wood, which is the chief source of the cellulose for the 
chemical industries, is largely composed of three series of com- 
pounds referred to by the industrial chemist as alpha, beta and 
gamma cellulose. Alpha cellulose is the cellulose of commerce. 
It forms for different kinds of trees from 40 to 60 per cent of 
the weight of their wood. Under the processes that are in cur- 
rent use the other cellulose materials in wood have little value 
and are wholly or in part wasted. The development of a proc- 
ess permitting profitable use of beta and gamma cellulose might 
add much to the value of the woods of the southern pines, 
which carry an exceptionally large proportion of the materials. 
Such a development might result in making the yellow pines 
of Georgia equally valuable with spruce as a source of commer- 
cial cellulose for many purposes. This would mean a material 
increase in the wealth of the State of Georgia. 

Another wide field open to the chemist is the development 
of processes that will permit a more extensive use of the woods 
of Georgia in the manufacture of paper. The paper-making 
qualities of many of these woods are little known. Less than 
three decades ago it was held doubtful whether the wood of the 
Southern yellow pines, on account of its hardness, its deep yel- 
low color which rendered bleaching costly, and its resinous na- 
ture, could be successfully employed in making any but the 
coarsest paper. Today this wood is a standard and economic 
material for making many classes of strong papers; but these 

22 



papers are brown, and this restricts their field of usefulness. 
Wider use will depend upon the chemist. 

The Land Problem of Georgia 

The decline in rural population and agriculture that is now 
taking place in Georgia is taking place in other states as well; 
but its effects are especially acute in Georgia for the reason that 
far more than half of the wealth of the state is invested in agri- 
culture. In states like New York, Pennsylvania, Ohio and Ill- 
inois, while the quantity of farm products is extremely large, 
the proportion of wealth produced in other lines is such that 
agriculture is overshadowed. To wipe out the agricultural re- 
sources of Georgia would bankrupt the state. 

In the 15-year period between 1909 and 1924, population 
decreased in 54 out of the 161 counties in Georgia, or in 30 
per cent of all the counties in the state. The counties in which 
the decrease took place were agricultural counties. In 28 other 
counties there was a decrease in rural population which was 
offset by an increase in the urban population, that is, in the 
population of incorporated towns. Thus the rural population 
decreased in a total of 46 per cent of the counties of the state. 
In those 5 years the total rural population of Georgia made the 
very small increase of 4.7 per cent. This low rate of increase 
in the rural population was partially compensated by an in- 
crease of 35 per cent in the urban population; the increase in 
the total population, however, was only 1 1 per cent. The 
urban industrial development of the state had not been suffi- 
cient to absorb fully that portion of the population which was 
lost by the decline in agriculture. 

This decline in rural population, while possibly not so 
acute at present as during the first two decades of this century, 
has not yet ceased. As might be expected, the decrease in ru- 
ral population has been accompanied by an alarming curtail- 
ment in the rate of agricultural development, the real founda- 



tion of the prosperity of the state. Increased efficiency on the 
part of the remaining agricultural workers has to a certain ex- 
tent compensated for the decrease in the area of agricultural 
land, which in the fifteen years, 1909-1924, exceeded 5,000,- 
000 acres, and in the number of farms, which between 1910 
and 1925 declined by more than 42,000. There was during 
the same period an enormous decline in the production of cot- 
ton, due to a decrease of more than 2,000,000 acres in the 
area of land devoted to the cultivation of this crop. The re- 
markable increase in the production of tobacco and peanuts that 
took place at the same time required only a relatively small in- 
crease in the acreage devoted to these crops. 

Between 1909 and 1924 there was a decline of 24 per cent 
in the total yield of grain crops — corn, wheat and oats — in 
Georgia. In the corn yield there was a decline of 11,000,000 
bushels; in oats, 2,000,000 bushels; and in wheat, something 
more than 500,000 bushels. The yield of oats, which can be 
regarded as the standard grain feed for draft stock, has been 
falling steadily since 1909. The decrease in corn and oats large- 
ly follows from the increased used of automobiles, trucks and 
tractors which not only have replaced draft stock in the cities 
but have accounted in part for a decrease between 1909 and 
1924 of 18,000 in the number of draft animals employed on 
Georgia farms. Since 1909 there has likewise occurred a de- 
crease in the amount of hay produced in Georgia, ascribable to 
the same conditions. 

Increase of Cultivated Acres Uneconomic 

For more than a century the land policy both of the Fed- 
eral Government and of the States, so far as the States have 
assumed the responsibility of a policy, has been to open up 
more and more land to be settled and occupied by farmers. 
There has been no restriction in the competition, and with the 
exhaustion of the land available for natural cultivation there 



24 



has followed a general movement to develop for farming lands 
that cannot be farmed except by irrigation or drainage, partly 
at the farmers' expense. It is safe to say that in this policy of 
expansion there has been too little thought for the farmers' wel- 
fare. 

In 1925 the Secretary of the Interior said, "There is no 
need for more reclamation projects until the present ones are 
on a sound basis. One-third of the projects are insolvent; one- 
fourth should never have been built. Six thousand farms ir- 
rigated by the Government are without occupants." Yet these 
irrigated reclamation projects are supposed to be the favored 
lands on which crops are certain. 

The general policy of the States has been to dispose of all 
their lands regardless of suitability for farming. This has led 
to the granting for homestead purposes of thousands of acres' 
the clearing and cultivation of which should never have been 
attempted. It was disastrous for the homesteader who, with 
his family, often spent years of toil, only in the end to have 
the bitter disappointment of failure and realization that a de- 
cent living could not be made under existing conditions. He 
lost his time, most of his labor, perhaps invested money in 
addition. 

A second consequence of the clearing of so much rough land 
has been an enormous increase in the quantity of soil eroded 
from the naked surface of this land after cultivation ceased. This 
has been an element in the low returns from hillside farms. It 
has laid an additional burden on the farmer as well as on others 
in the way of taxes. This erosion of soil has necessitated con- 
tinued dredging of stream channels to keep them open; it is 
now threatening the permanency of storage reservoirs of hydro- 
electric power companies — a consequence really more important 
to the people of this state, because power, and cheap power, 
now is an important factor in determining markets for farm 
products and in determining the cheapness of goods used by 
the farmer. 



25 



It is my opinion that under these conditions the land policy 
to be advocated is not the clearing of additional lands. With 
the continued decline in rural population the opening up of ad- 
ditional lands mean, as a rule, drawing people from established 
agricultural communities. The older communities are weakened 
and the newly established communities remain weak. Such a 
policy would tend to maintain the condition that in the past 
has retarded rural development over so much of the country, 
especially in the South. Would not the desirable policy at the 
present time be to take measures that will tend to check the 
further clearing of woodland? Is not the best way to do this to 
take such a course as will make land that is now in woods most 
profitable as an investment? 

Woodland Are Investment Opportunity 

There are some six million acres of waste and unproduc- 
tive land in Georgia. It can safely be said that not one-tenth 
of the woodland of the state is producing two-thirds of its nor- 
mal capacity, and large portions are producing less than one- 
half their capacity. These estimates do not include stands of 
old timber the growth of which is stationary. 

For the past 50 years Georgia has been exercising itself 
to secure industrial capital. Capital is not necessarily invested 
money, but may be property that has a producing capacity. 
Woodland now offers an opportunity for developing an enor- 
mous amount of increased capital at a very slight outlay. It 
requires the raising of no large sums of money for purchase 
or investment. It demands no increase in labor cost such as is 
required for handling an increase in farm area. A local or 
nearby market awaits the product. Timber is now coming 
into the eastern states from the Pacific Coast and from the 
lower Mississippi Valley region. This state has the differenece 
in freight as its extra margin of prospective profit. 

It is necessary to stress the desirability of the adoption of a 

26 



definite policy in regard to the use of land. Certain lands at 
the present time should be considered as essentially suited to 
the growing of timber, and should be managed with this ob- 
ject in view. It is not desired in any way to disparage the im- 
portance of the further extension of agriculture whenever eco- 
nomic conditions justify it; but extension of the farm area 
should be restricted until the earnings of the farmer are on a 
higher level. Land not now in use for farming should be put 
to use in the production of timber. 

In order to make possible the best economic use of Geor- 
gia's potential timber crops, it is necessary that new uses for 
certain classes of wood be developed. Already the state has 
an enormous and always increasing area of small and low- 
grade timber, second growth of inferior quality. Not only must 
wood-using industries be developed, but the utilization of cellu- 
lose, the most important content of wood, should be developed 
and extended by means of the chemical industries. This can 
be accomplished only by means of adequately supported re- 
search. 



27 



£ 



\s 



Bulletin No. 9 



September, 1929 



Georgia Forest Service 



B. M. Lufburrovv. State Forester 



Planting Pines 
In South Georgia 

By 
Fred. B. Merrill 



r 




&&-ZM 



">" Y 2 2 1968 



CONTENTS 

Page 

Can Pine Trees Be Replanted? 3 

Where to Plant 3 

Fire Protection 3 

What to Plant 4 

How to Secure Reforestation 4 

Seed Spots 5 

Woods-Grown Seedlings 5 

Seed-Bed Seedlings 6 

Planting Mistakes 6 

Care of Planting Stock 7 

Heeling In 7 

Planting Space 7 

Soil Preparation 8 

Planting Method 9 

Pruning 11 

Protection 12 

Growing Seedlings 12 

Buying Seedlings 13 

Collecting Seed 13 

Time to Plant 14 

Seed-Bed Preparation 15 

Sowing 15 

Covering 16 

Protecting .A6 

Weeding 17 



Planting Pines in South Georgia 

Can Pine Trees Be Replanted? 

Many land owners in South Georgia still believe that it is 
impossible to transplant a pine tree and get it to live, yet other 
land owners in this same section have already transplanted the 
little pines to the extent of several hundreds of thousands with 
success. Many mistakes have been made in establishing these 
early plantations, yet there is conclusive evidence here and else- 
where that the idea is practical and that satisfactory profits are 
to be expected from the undertaking. This bulletin is distrib- 
uted with the idea of aiding many to avoid the losses which 
some of the early planters sustained. 

Where to Plant 

In the first place there are many areas with such an abun- 
dance of seed trees, left from former logging operations, that 
nature will reseed the areas if forest fires are prevented. In gen- 
eral, if there are three or more seed trees per acre, well scattered 
over the property, the economy of artificial planting of trees is 
doubtful. The word "economy" is chosen in this instance 
because there is a growing belief that the greater number of 
mature trees per acre, the better spacing, and the greater ease of 
management that result from planting, will more than offset 
the extra costs. However, no plantings in South Georgia have 
as yet reached merchantable size, so no conclusive proof is avail- 
able. Therefore, it can only be recommended that land owners go 
slowly in their planting operations on areas where natural re- 
forestation can be obtained. This confines the sites definitely 
recommended for planting to old fields and areas without 
enough seed trees. 

Fire Protection 

No plantings will survive and no great amount of natural 
reproduction can be expected unless all fires are kept out of the 



4 Planting Pines in South Georgia 

area for at least three years after the planting or after the seed 
year, so the land owner should not waste his time and money 
in planting unless he expects to follow up with a plan of forest 
fire protection. If fires can be prevented for three years, which 
has now been done in many places in South Georgia, it is rea- 
sonable to expect that the land owner can protect his property 
indefinitely, thus getting the benefits of the greater vitality and 
increased growth which his trees will have when protected from 
fire. 

What to Plant 

Once it has been decided to plant certain areas, the next 
question is what shall be planted? Most people in South Geor- 
gia are thinking only of slash and longleaf pines, so these species 
will be the only ones given consideration in this bulletin. How- 
ever, there are many other good trees to plant, information about 
which may be obtained by writing to the State Forester in 
Atlanta. 

The slash pine (Pinus caribaea) now has the lead in popu- 
larity over the longleaf (Pinus palustris) for reforestation work. 
This popularity is deserved to a certain extent, but the longleaf 
pine should not be despised for it is probable that on certain 
sites, such as sandy ridges, it will do better than the slash pine. 
However, it is generally conceded that the slash pine will grow 
a little faster in early years, that its wood will sell equally as 
well as the longleaf pine, that it will produce a little more gum. 
require a little less scrape, and make a little better grade of naval 
stores products. Slow growth in early years has been one of the 
handicaps of the longleaf pine, but this has been overcome to a 
certain extent by the use of vigorous nursery grown planting 
stock. Such stock enables the longleaf pine to compete fairly 
well in height growth with slash pine planted on the same land. 

How to Secure Reforestation 

Broadcast Sowing — A number of ways of getting a stand 
of pines has been tried. The first method that usually appeals 






Georgia Forest Service 5 

to people is to sow the seed broadcast. One trial of this method 
is usually enough. About all that is accomplished is to furnish 
birds and rodents with a supply of food. A few successful stands 
have been secured by this method, but even in these instances it 
has been found that the cost is too great. From 3 to 5 pounds 
of seed per acre are required, making the total cost of broadcast 
sowing $10 per acre and up, and with results not at all certain. 
It is advised that broadcast sowing not be tried. 

Seed Spots 

Another method sometimes employed is to sow seed spots. 
In other words, in every place that one wants a tree, hoe up a 
little spot and plant a few seed. Then when the trees come up, 
thin them out in case there are too many. This method is a 
little less expensive than broadcast-seeding and is a little less 
susceptible to damage by birds and rodents, but little better re- 
sults can be expected from seed spots than from broadcast 
sowing. 

Woods-Grown Seedlings 

Another method that appeals to the land owner is to go out 
in the woods and dig up or pull up little seedlings and trans- 
plant them. This method has considerable merit, but it is open 
to many objections. The beginner usually feels that the bigger 
the young tree he can get, the better start he has and he takes 
trees from 3 to 6 feet tall. If so, he finds that it requires several 
minutes to dig one tree, that only a few trees can be transported 
at a time, that the trees are difficult to handle and finally that 
he will need a posthole digger to plant them. Of course, the cost 
of planting such trees is excessive and at the end of the year the 
planter is almost sure to be discouraged, for most of the trees 
will have died from the shock of transplanting, or from the 
results of poor handling. Woods-grown seedlings one or two 
years old may be successfully transplanted, but trees taller than 
two feet should not be used and trees of less than one foot in 
height will prove to be the most satisfactory. 



6 Planting Pines in South Georgia 

Seed-Bed Seedlings 

The surest and most satisfactory planting stock may be 
obtained by using seedlings grown in seed beds. One-year-old 
seedlings of this sort have better root systems and a greater per- 
centage of them survive. The growing of seedlings in seed beds 
is discussed in detail further on in this bulletin. 




State Tree Nursery at Athens 



Planting Mistakes 



A number of other mistakes in planting have been ob- 
served in South Georgia, and in almost every case they 
have led to poor results. Most people have been pulling up 
the seedlings. In order to do this they have selected young trees 
growing in moist areas and the damage to the roots has not 
been so great. As might be expected, however, on moist areas 
the food supply of the tree is more in solution than elsewhere, 






Georgia Forest Service 

consequently the young tree does not have to develop small 
fibrous roots as abundantly as do upland trees. Thus, the planter 
starts his operations with a poor class of materials, for young 
transplanted trees should have abundant fibrous roots. 

Better results will be obtained from seedlings dug than from 
those that are pulled, for it stands to reason that pulling is going 
to injure many of the smaller roots. Therefore, use a spade or 
shovel to help get seedlings from the woods. 

Care of Planting Stock 

After the seedling has been dug, either put it at once in a 
bucket partly filled with muddy water or else wrap the roots 
in burlap that is dripping wet. It is not necessary that some of 
the dirt remain on the roots. Be sure to keep the roots moist at 
all times while they are out of the ground. If they dry out, you 
will save time and money by throwing them away. 

Heeling In 

If the trees cannot be planted the day they are dug, they 
may be "heeled in." This means digging a trench, setting the 
seedlings in it and covering their roots with moist, not wet, 
earth. Firm the earth around the roots, for if the air gets to 
them and dries them out, they will be no good. Plant the trees 
as soon as possible after they are dug and at all times keep the 
roots from drying out. 

Planting Space 

Several different spacings are being used for planting trees. 
These vary from 6x6 feet, or 1210 trees per acre, to 10x10 feet, 
or 436 trees per acre. The idea in spacing is to get as many trees 
per acre as that acre will grow satisfactorily and at the same time 
give the greatest value in forest products. If planting for timber 
alone, a close spacing (6x6 feet) is best, for within a few years 
the branches of adjoining treees will meet and the lower branches 



8 Planting Pines in South Georgia 

will die out and fall off for lack of sunlight, thus reducing 
knots and assuring a maximum amount of high-grade lumber. 
If naval stores is the object of the planting, then wider spacing 
is desirable, for the yield of gum varies with the size of the 
crown. 

Planting trees now is starting something that will not be 
available for use for at least twelve years. No one can tell what 
forest product will be most in demand at that time. Present in- 
dications are that the man who has timber fifteen years from 
now will reap a good profit from lumber and other wood prod- 
ucts. The outlook for the naval stores industry is also prom- 
ising. Therefore, it seems best to advise medium spacing that 
will work for the benefit of both lumber and naval stores. A 
proper spacing appears to be about 8x8 feet, or 680 trees per 
acre. With this spacing it is believed that the trees will grow 
vigorously until they reach 9 or 10 inches in diameter. This 
will bring them to the proper size for profitable naval stores 
operation. If at this time every other tree is worked for ten years 
for naval stores, the unworked trees will shoot ahead and the 
worked trees can then be removed, using them for low-grade 
lumber, posts, poles and fuel. 

It is recommended that pine trees in South Georgia be spaced 
8x8 feet apart, or at the rate of 680 trees per acre. 

Soil Preparation 

A number of people have been using a middle buster or other 
plow to make furrows eight feet apart through the area to be 
planted. This removes the competing grass, makes planting 
easier and gives the trees a better chance. Another method is to 
throw two furrows together and plant in the loose soil. Both 
methods have met with success, but the plowing costs about a 
dollar an acre and the aim is to get a satisfactory stand of trees 
at the lowest possible cost. Some people are trying the planting 
of trees without any preparation of the soil, with satisfactory 
results. Both methods may be tried to make sure which works 



Georgia Forest Service 9 

best on each type of land. There has been some discussion of the 
treatment of areas to be planted when furrows are not plowed. 
Some believe that burning will make planting easier and reduce 
danger of insect infestation or disease, while others say that 
burning favors soil erosion especially harmful to very small 
longleaf seedlings. Burning of unfenced areas will also attract 




(By courtesy of U. S. Forest Service) 
Making Opening for Seedling 

stock in the spring and the damage from trampling may be con- 
siderable. It is advised that burning before planting be avoided 



Planting Method 

The planting of seedlings is simple. One man goes ahead 
with a shovel, spade, mattock, or a broad chisel-shaped tool, 
called a planting dibble, and makes a perpendicular slit in the 
ground. This is accomplished by forcing the tool straight down 
into the soil and then moving it slightly back and forth a few 
times until the tool can be easily removed, leaving a narrow slit 
deep enough and broad enough to hold the roots of the seed- 



10 



Planting Pines in South Georgia 



lings without cramping. A second man comes behind with the 
seedlings in a bucket half full of muddy water, or with 50 or 
100 seedlings whose roots are well wrapped in a heavy cloth 
that is dripping wet. One seedling is taken out at a time and is 
placed perpendicularly in the slit. If the young trees are planted 
in furrows they should be planted not quite as deep as they were 
in the nursery or woods for the first rain will wash some soil 
around them and place them at the proper depth. This is par- 
ticularly true of longleaf, which, if set too deep, is often smoth- 
ered by silt. When planted on level ground, the seedlings should 
be placed at about the same depth they were when taken from 
the nursery. The seedling is held in the slit at the proper depth 




(By courtesy of U. S. Forest Service) 
Placing Seeding in Opening 



with the left hand. The right heel can then strike the soil 
about three inches away from the slit. A good hard drive with 
the heel will force the soil back in place solidly around the roots 
and a few more thrusts with the foot will tamp the earth suf- 
ficiently. If the earth is not well firmed around the roots, the 
air will enter and dry out the soil and the tree will die. 



Georgia Forest Service 



11 



On harder soils it may be necessary for the man with the 
spade or other tool to help get the earth back around the roots. 
This may be accomplished by forcing the tool into the ground 
a few inches in front of the first slit, and prizing the earth 
toward the seedling. 

It is easily seen that the above methods can be used only 
with small seedlings. Trees two or more feet in height will 
have a root system longer than the face of the spade or other 
tool and the roots would be cramped in the slits. If larger 
trees are used, be sure to dig a hole big enough for the roots. 
Sometime when the roots are rather long it is best to prune them 
back to about ten inches. This should be done with a sharp 
knife or other tool to make a clean cut. 




(By courtesy of U. S. Forest Service) 
Closing Opening With Thrust of Heel 



Pruning 

Nursery-grown seedlings should have their roots pruned 
back to a length of about eight or ten inches, using a sharp knife 
or other instrument to make a clean cut. But two-year-old 



1 2 Planting Pines in South Georgia 

woods-grown seedlings will usually have such long tap roots 
that such close pruning will remove too much of the root. In 
such cases, they should receive some pruning and the hole dug 
large enough to prevent cramping of the roots. 

A few planters have pruned off the side branches of the lit- 
tle seedlings at the time they are planted and each year there- 
after. Pruning a side branch or two at the time of planting 
may do no harm, but it must be remembered that the green pine 
straw is the place where the raw food taken in by the roots and 
from the air is changed so that the tree can use it. Annual re- 
moval of side branches from very young trees is harmful and 
will slow down their rate of growth. 

Protection 

After planting, the trees require no watering or other atten- 
tion except protection from fires and animals. Fire protection 
can be secured by plowing fire breaks around and through the 
plantation. Damage from animals can be prevented only by 
keeping them out of the planted areas for the first few years. 
Trampling of the young trees is seldom serious after the first 
two years, but hogs are especially fond of the roots of the long- 
leaf pine and may uproot hundreds of the little trees. Some 
damage from hogs has also been noticed on slash pine trees as 
tall as ten feet. 

Growing Seedlings 

Most of the preceding information on planting will apply 
as well to nursery-grown seedlings as it will to woods-grown 
seedlings, but planting nursery-grown seedlings is recommended 
in preference to any other method of securing artificial refores- 
tation. Nursery-grown seedlings have well-developed root sys- 
tems; they are uniform in size; they are easy to secure; planting 
them is cheaper; and finally, it is believed that the average 
planter will get ten to fifty per cent more living trees than if 
he uses woods-grown seedlings. When the cost of gathering 



Georgia Forest Service 13 

woods-grown seedlings, the added cost of planting, and the 
resultant poorer stands are considered, it will be found that 
planting nursery-grown seedlings is cheaper. 

Buying Seedlings 

Some planters will wish to grow their own seedlings, but if 
there are less than 50 acres to plant, it will be cheaper to buy 
the seedlings than to grow them. They may be secured from 
the Forest School at the State College of Agriculture, Athens, 
Georgia, at the price of about $3.00 per thousand, or from 
Commercial Nurseries. The seedlings secured from the College 
are grown with the aid of Federal Funds allotted to the Georgia 
Forest Service, the Forest School being employed to grow seed- 
lings and sell them at cost. It is probable that if the seedlings 
are grown in increased quantities, the price per thousand will 
be lowered. 

The reason that buying small quantities of seedlings is 
preferable to growing them is that there are some little details to 
growing and caring for seedlings that in most instances will 
make it cost more to grow say 20,000 seedlings than it will to 
buy them. However, if one has time, or if a considerable area 
is to be planted, it will be desirable to start one's own seed beds. 
In such cases, the land owner will learn how trees grow, why 
they cannot be expected to live through fires, and the large 
planter will have available a supply of seedlings to use when he 
wishes. 

Collecting Seed 

To establish a forest nursery, the first thing necessary is 
good seed. These may be secured from several reliable seed 
houses whose names may be secured from the State Forester at 
Atlanta, or from the Forest School, State College of Agriculture. 
Athens. Ga. Seed should be planted within six months after 
they are gathered. To secure fresh seed, gathering them from 
the forest may be necessary. This is easily done. Follow a 



1 4 Planting Pines in South Georgia 

logging operation in late September or early October when the 
cones or burs begin to turn brown and before they begin to 
open. Gather the cones from the cut tops of the trees. Under 
each scale on a cone are two seeds, which will fall out when the 
cone dries and opens up. When gathered, the cones are some- 
what moist and apt to mould, so they should be stored loosely 
in sacks or scattered on a tight floor in a dry place where there 
is plenty of air. Within a week or so they will have dried out 
and opened up so that when one shakes the sack or the cones on 
the floor are raked about, most of the seeds will fall out and go 
to the bottom where they may be easily gathered when the 
empty cones have been picked up. A bushel of cones will re- 
lease about one pound of seed, which means about 15,000 slash 
pine seeds, or 6,000 longleaf seeds. The wings on the slash pine 
seeds will come off easily when rubbed in a bag. This should 
be done and the wings separated by blowing them out or drop- 
ping them from a short height onto a paper so that the wind 
can blow out the wings. The seeds thus cleaned will be found 
easy to handle and plant. The wings will not come off of the 
longleaf seed, but they should be handled as above so that they 
will be as clean as possible. 

If there is no logging operation near, cones may be picked 
from the tree. One man can gather as many as ten bushels of 
cones in a day if he is equipped with tree climbers. He should 
pick or cut the cones from the tree, letting them drop to the 
ground where they can be quickly picked up. 

Time to Plant 

Seed beds may be planted any time during the winter 
months, but November will probably be better for the longleaf 
pine and February or March for the slash pine. No treatment 
is necessary for the longleaf pine seeds, but the slash seeds may 
sprout quicker and more evenly if they are soaked in cold water 
for about three days before planting. A method which prom- 
ises to give even better results with the slash pine is as follows:* 

Clean slash pine seed may be mixed with moist peat and 






Georgia Forest Service 15 

placed in trays of cheesecloth bags and kept in cold storage or 
in an ice box for two months. The peat is kept moist and the 
bags or trays are taken out about once a week and stirred to 
aerate them. Seeds treated this way may sprout quicker and more 
evenly than untreated seeds. Quick and even germination of the 
seeds will give an even stand and much more successful seed beds. 

Seed Bed Preparation 

Seed beds may be located in the open or in a place where 
there is some shade during part of the day. A supply of water 
should be near at hand. Any sandy loam is suitable and fer- 
tilizer is not necessary unless the beds are to be kept more than 
one year in a place. The soil should be well worked up to the 
depth of about a foot, and all grass, weeds, sticks and other un- 
desirable matter removed. The beds should not be more than 
four feet wide because weeding will be necessary and a bed wider 
than this cannot be weeded easily from the side. The length of 
the bed does not matter, but since a screen will have to be used 
to keep birds and rodents from getting the seed and the young 
sprouts, a bed 12 to 25 feet is recommended as a desirable length. 

The soil in the bed should be slightly higher than the sur- 
rounding surface to insure good drainage. The bed should be 
surrounded by a frame of 1x4 inches or 1x6 inches of wood to 
hold the screen. The dimensions of this frame and material 
may be altered to suit the individual needs and the materials 
at hand. If there is reasonable assurance that birds will not 
damage the beds, then no frame is necessary. 

Let the bed settle for a week or so before the seeds are 
planted. 

Sowing 

About 75 slash or 40 longleaf pine seedlings per square 
foot of seed bed are desired. Only about half of the seed can be 
counted on to grow, so a pound of longleaf seed should be 
sown on about 80 square feet of seed bed and a pound of slash 



1 6 Planting Pines in South Georgia 

seed on about 1 20 square feet. In planting, the seed should be 
distributed evenly over the bed and then pressed into the soil 
with a board. After this, clean sand may be sprinkled over the 
seed until they are barely covered. If covered too deep, the 
results will be poor. Excellent results have been secured without 
putting any sand at all over the planted seeds and some large 
nurseries follow this practice. 

Covering 

The next thing to do is to cover the bed with a burlap cloth 
laid directly on top of the soil or seed and held down with 
spikes or stones to prevent it from blowing away. Another good 
mulch to use in place of the burlap is about two inches of clean 
pine straw. Care should be taken to water thoroughly and 
evenly and not to put water on in such quantities that the 
seed will be washed out. A sprinkling pot or fine spray nozzle 
will do the work best. Watering should continue at one or 
two-day intervals for about two weeks. At the end of ten days 
the bed should be examined and the burlap or pine straw cover 
should be removed if there are about 30 longleaf or 50 slash 
seedlings showing to the square foot. At the end of fifteen 
days if there are still not that many seedlings showing, it is 
probable that the seed were faulty, or that something was 
wrong with the planting method. The burlap or pine straw 
should then be removed anyway. Sometimes if planting has 
been done during a period of cold weather, the seeds may need 
a longer time to germinate. After the covering has been removed, 
watering should still be continued for a week or more, for many 
other seeds will probably sprout. 

Protecting 

The greatest damage to seed beds in South Georgia has come 
from birds, which eat the seed or bite off the tops of the very 
young seedlings in order to get the seed coats which have not 
yet been discarded. Losses as high as 50 per cent may result from 



Georgia Forest Service 17 

this one source. Some seed beds located near homes are not sub- 
ject to this trouble, but in general it is best to cover the beds 
with screen wire having about two meshes to the inch. This 
wire may be tacked lightly to the seed bed frame or it may be 
mounted in a separate frame that will fit tightly on the seed 
bed frame. The bed should be screened immediately after the 
covering is placed over the seed. 

Weeding 

Weeding the beds should begin as soon as the covering is 
removed and should continue once a week as long as necessary. 
If the weeds are allowed to get to any size they will choke out 
the seedlings and when the weeds are then pulled they will 
loosen or even bring up the seedlings with them. It is very im- 
portant that the beds be kept free from weeds. Many good beds 
have been entirely lost by the neglect of this one operation. 

When most of the seed have sprouted, watering may be 
partly discontinued, but it should be remembered that a great 
many seedlings are growing on a square foot of ground and that 
they are using a lot of water. Therefore, if a week goes by 
without a good rain, the beds should be thoroughly watered. 

During the first six weeks of their life, seedlings are very 
tender. If the weather is hot, they may suffer sun scald. This 
can be avoided by partly shading the beds. In most instances 
shading will not be necessary. Another trouble may result from a 
disease called "damping off," which attacks seedlings up to 
about eight weeks of age. This disease causes seedlings to wilt 
near the ground level and they soon die. The disease is not apt 
to be present unless the seed beds are maintained at the same place 
for several years. If the disease appears, change the site of the 
seed bed each year. When it appears in a bed, stop watering 
for a few days and sprinkle the bed lightly with dry sand. 

During the summer, regular weeding and occasional water- 
ing is all that will be necessary, and during the next winter the 
young plants will be ready for the field. A spade or shovel, or 



1 8 Planting Pines in South Georgia 

spading fork makes a good tool for lifting the plants from the 
bed. Care should be taken that the seedlings are lifted and not 
pulled. When lifted, the earth should be gently shaken away 
from the roots and the roots should be immediately wrapped 
in a wet cloth or packed in shagnum moss or "shingle toe" to 
prevent drying out. Lift only as many seedlings as you expect 
to plant that day. 

*Lela V. Barton, Boyce Thompson Institute for Plant Research. HASTENING THE 
GERMINATION OF SOUTHERN PINE SEEDS, Journal of Forestry, October, 1928. 



Bulletin 10 



May, 1930 



Georgia Forest Service 

B. M. LUFBURROW, State Forester 




Introduction 



This bulletin has been prepared primarily to report the pro- 
gress that some timber owners of Georgia are making, and to 
give in their own words, what results they have obtained, how 
they have obtained them and what they hope to accomplish. 
Only a few of the many reports that could have been obtained, 
are given herein, but from time to time it is expected that 
others will be secured and published. 

It is believed that everyone who reads the experiences of 
these timber growers will be thoroughly convinced that it pays 
to prevent forest fires and, we believe, they will become en- 
thused over the possibilities of growing trees in Georgia. 

Experiences are given in this bulletin from the small 30-acre 
timber grower to the large 200,000-acre commercial forestry 
project; from the pine belt and hardwood belt; from women 
managers as well as men; from school forests and town forests; 
from timber located at tidewater and on mountain crests; from 
lands operated under trained foresters and from novices begin- 
ning to deal with their forest problems for the first time. The 
whole reveals an awakening that promises well for the future 
of forestry in Georgia. 

B. M. LUFBURROW, 

State Forester. 



Profitable Forestry In Georgia 

C. A. Whittle 



Will it pay to grow trees in Georgia? 

The object of this bulletin is to give evidence for our emphatic 
answer, "Yes". 

Any commodity for which there is a demand has a value. 
What is the outlook for the demand for wood? This country 
is consuming wood faster than it is growing it, as evidenced by 
the fact that we are importing more than fifty per cent of our 
wood pulp material and some lumber is coming from abroad. 
The demand today in this country for wood is, in fact, greater 
in proportion to the supply than ever before. 

When a supply decreases and the demand does not decrease, 
the consequence is higher prices. Because of the growing scarcity 
of wood, the general price level is quite a bit higher than it was 
25, 30 and 50 years ago. This too in spite of the increasing 
use of wood substitutes such as cement, brick and iron. 

Nothing can completely displace wood for building purposes. 
The more people there are the more wood there must be to house 
them, and to use for stores, warehouses, factories and for trans- 
portation facilities. The population of this country is far from 
the saturation point; therefore, the certainty of a continued de- 
mand for wood. 

New and Old Uses for Wood 

Furthermore, new uses for wood are arising. The inventive 
chemist has turned his attention to wood fiber or wood cells, 
and lo! we have produced from wood artificial silk, non-break- 
able glass, non-combustible films, transparent paper, photo- 
graphic films, sausage casings, vulcanized or composition board 
for maling trunks; hat boxes, electric insulation, buckets, waste 
baskets; cellulose as a base for gun cotton, dynamite, smoke- 



4 Profitable Forestry in Georgia 

less powder; cellulose paints that can be sprayed on automobiles 
and other wood surfaces; surfacing material for cloth to make 
imitation leather; washable wall paper; imitation ivories of 
many colors, artificial pearls, brooches, necklaces, buttons, foun- 
tain pens, knife handles, and on and on. The possibilities seem 
unlimited. 

Then too, the chemists are finding new uses for naval stores, 
adding to the hundred or more already found for rosin and 
turpentine extracted from the slash and longleaf pines. 

Just as the textile mills moved southward where cotton is 
grown, the paper mills are moving southward where wood fiber 
is growing faster, cheaper and in greater abundance than any- 
where else in the United States. Chemical genius has already 
learned how to economically convert southern pines into white 
paper as it had already learned to use many hardwoods in which 
the south abounds. And the demand for paper is increasing 
enormously 
. Venee: manufacture is a comparatively new industry. It is 
making rapid progress in Georgia where red gum, white oak, 
cherry, tupelo, magnolia, yellow poplar, black gum, walnut, 
maple, bay, sycamore and other species are providing material for 
interior finishing, furniture, baskets, boxes, crates, etc. An in- 
creasing demand for veneer materials is certain, and other species 
of wood will doubtless be brought into use for this purpose. 

The demand made upon Georgia forests for telephone, tele- 
graph, electric power poles and for crossties, is certainly showing 
no sign of decreasing but rather to the contrary. Except for sea- 
sonal variations the demands for saw timber show no decrease 
and the output of lumber, shingles, plywood, staves and head- 
ings keeps up and is providing a local source of wealth and em- 
ployment that has meant much to the financial welfare of the 
State. 

All in all, there is abundant evidence that the demand for for- 
est products is not a matter about which the timber land owners 
need to worry, but the evidence is that there should be great con- 
cern about preparing to supply the wood demand of the future. 



Georgia Forest Service 5 

It is too sadly evident that many timber owners in Georgia do 
not have a vision of the future possibilities of forest products, 
else there would not be so many forest fires nor would they 
show so little interest in forest management. 

Forest Burning Must Be Stopped 

Every year many millions of dollars of potential forest wealth 
go up in smoke in Georgia. The future tree crops are cut off 
and the established trees are injured, starved and retarded in 
growth, if not killed outright. So great is the damage of fire 
to forest growth that one can say positively that little or no 
profit is to be obtained from growing timber if the woods are 
allowed to burn over annually. 

Many turpentine operators practice protective burning; raking 
around trees and burning the litter of the forest floor. But tests 
have shown that modern fire breaks and patrol will provide pro- 
tection at less cost and with greater production of gum. 

Many farmers burn off their woods to kill boll weevils, una- 
ware that boll weevils do not hibernate in the forest floor ma- 
terial that is burned, but spend the winter under the bark, in 
knot holes, in dead standing trees, and other places where the 
fire does not reach. 

Some burn to green up the pasture and in doing so, destroy 
the only good native pasture grasses — lespedeza and carpet grass 
— leaving principally wire grass and sedge grass for grazing. 

Some burn to get a better view of quail and other game but 
in doing so they only drive out the game because their coverage 
and food are destroyed. 

No good reason, as a matter of fact, can be given for burning 
off the woods. Unquestionably, the net results of forest fires is 
the destruction of actual and potential wealth. 

The Georgia Forest Service is combatting forest fires by form- 
ing Timber Protective Organizations among timber owners, by 
publicity in the form of pamphlets and fire posters; by moving 
pictures displayed in rural schools; by cooperating with 150 



6 Profitable Forestry in Georgia 

consolidated rural high schools in establishing and operating 
school forests; by highway demonstration plots with signs 
showing how natural reproduction will take place if fires are 
kept out; by encouraging the construction of fire breaks and the 
use of fire fighting equipment; by exhibits made at the State For- 
est Fair and other fairs in the State; by syndicated newspaper 
articles; addresses before civic organizations; by urging the 
officers of the law to enforce the fire laws; by appointing fire 
wardens and by holding conferences with individual timber 
owners. 

Fire protection through education of the public is a great un- 
dertaking. Unless leaders in every community will rally to the 
cause and lend their assistance, progress will be retarded and 
every winter and spring will continue to witness wealth ascend- 
ing as smoke in every community in the state for many years 
to come. 

How Fast Will Forests Produce Wealth 

It has been stated that wood can be grown faster in the South 
than elsewhere in the country. Sunshine, moisture, long grow- 
ing season and rapid growing species are the chief contributing 
factors. Slash, loblolly and longleaf pines, yellow poplar and 
cottonwood are among the leading commercial species of trees 
with ability to grow very rapidly, but all species of trees show 
more rapid growth in the South than they do in the north and 
northwest because of the longer growing season. 

In a word — the rapid growth and the species of trees growing 
in the South constitute the chief reasons why the south must be 
the important future source of forest products of this country. 

Investigations by research workers on the rate of growth of 
slash, longleaf and loblolly pines in the south show that even 
where no effort at forest management is made there are 1 l /i to 
2 J/2 cords growth per acre annually. Some data indicate that 
yellow poplar and cottonwood are practically as rapid in growth 
as the pines mentioned. .Had these forests of pine been given 



Georgia Forest Service 7 

proper management, and the plant food and moisture of the 
soil been directed into desirable trees rather than into suppressed 
trees and undesirable species, the growth rate could be reasonably 
expected to be at least a half cord more per acre annually. There- 
fore, it is not unreasonable to expect that on average land, well 
stocked with the more rapid growing species that it is possible to 
have an annual increment of growth of 2 x /i cords per acre. 

How much wood is Georgia growing annually on its more 
than 23,000,000 acres of forest and semi-forest land? Probably 
less than half a cord per acre, because of poor stands, fires that 
keep down reproduction, and lack of proper thinning and im- 
provement cutting. In other words, Georgia is not growing as 
much as 1 5 per cent of the wood it is capable of growing on its 
present forested area. What this loss will amount to can only 
be guessed, for no one knows how much forest products will be 
worth in the future. It is certain that the total output could be 
seven times more than it is and the value increased as much as 
the future demand and ready markets will bring. 

The establishment of paper mills and other cellulose industries 
in the South, and fuller utilization of forest resources in other 
ways by other wood-working plants, certainly heighten the 
prospects of the forest wealth of Georgia. 

Land Utilization 

Land too poor to grow agricultural crops profitably can grow 
trees successfully. Many acres of abandoned farm land not now 
needed for growing crops and many acres now cultivated at a 
loss should be allowed to grow trees. Much of this agricultural 
marginal land will come back under natural reforestation if fires 
are kept out. Other areas should be planted. It is probable that 
at least 6 million acres of abandoned farm land and land of low 
productivity could be added to the 23,000,000 acres now in 
forest land in Georgia. 

Tree growing is one of the safest and surest ways of getting 
returns from land. The outlay for labor and other expense is 



8 Profitable Forestry in Georgia 

insignificant as compared to farm crops and land on which own- 
ers are now paying taxes without any returns can be made 
to develop wealth for the owner. 

Forest Harvesting and Rotation 

Because of their quick growth, their adaptability to various 
soil types, hardiness and their many uses, growing southern 
pines is particularly attractive for investment. Because of their 
ability to produce gum profitably, slash and longleaf pines have 
an advantage over other pines in wealth production. 

Under natural reforestation pines come up to a thick stand. 
Economic management as a rule recommends that these pines be 
allowed to grow thickly until they are large enough to produce 
fence posts and firewood before the first thinning. A second 
thinning can usually be made after the trees have gained nine 
inches or more in diameter. Before the trees are removed they 
may be turpentined, and then marketed as pulpwood, poles, 
crossties, etc. 

The second thinning reduces the stand to a point where the 
remaining trees will make rapid growth in reaching saw timber 
size. Before being harvested, they too can be turpentined. After 
being cut into logs the tops and larger limbs can be marketed 
as wood for paper manufacture. 

Reforestation will have begun after the last thinning so that a 
new crop of trees will be well on their way by the time the saw 
timber is cut. Thus a crop rotation will be in progress. 

It will be observed that in the course of one generation of 
slash or longleaf pine, it is possible to get four crops; first, fire 
wood and fence posts; second, gum and pulpwood or poles; 
third, gum, and fourth, saw logs and pulpwood. The cropping 
program for loblolly and shortleaf pines will be similar except 
for the gum. 

While a number of hardwoods will yield larger returns per 
board feet as saw timber or veneer than pine, they grow more 
slowly and will not give as large return per acre over a number 



Georgia Forest Service 9 

of years as pine. Perhaps yellow poplar, black locust and a few 
other quick-growing valuable trees will approach pines rather 
closely for per acre returns, but as a rule the quick-growing hard- 
woods can be grown successfully only on limited areas. 

The conclusion is that Georgia should emphasize pines as 
their state-wide forest money crop. Pines can be grown success- 
fully in all parts of the state, on poor as well as rich soils, and, 
as a rule, find a local market ready to absorb their output. 

Forest-Minded Georgians 

This publication is issued primarily as a recognition of the 
services rendered forestry by Georgians who have a vision of 
what forest production means, Georgians who are protecting 
their trees from fire, promoting reforestation and practicing good 
forest management, including wise utilization. Their example, 
it is hoped, may be an incentive to others to do likewise. 

By no means has the field been covered. From time to time, 
it is our purpose to record in publications similar to this, the out- 
standing examples of progress in restoring to Georgia its ancient 
glory of forests and forest products. 

WHAT SOME GEORGIANS ARE DOING TO DEVELOP 
THEIR FOREST RESOURCES 

Members of the staff of the Georgia Forest Service have ob- 
tained the following statements from timber owners as to what 
they are doing to develop their forests, their observations and 
conclusions. It will be noted that these timber growers are 
strongly of the opinion that trees must be protected from fire to 
do well; that land undesirable for farm crops produce trees suc- 
cessfully; that trees grow more rapidly when properly thinned. 

Pioneer in Forest Protection 

W. J. Mullis, Waycross, Route 4, owning 223 acres of pine 
land, began the care of his forest 22 years ago. The land is well 



10 



Profitable Forestry in Georgia 



stocked, due to fire protection. Mr. Mullis says: 

"Having been born here in South Georgia, I have had the 
opportunity of seeing this country from its virgin state with its 
billion dollars of wealth in the stately yellow and slash pine, 
and also have seen this pine ruthlessly wasted by fires, saw 
mills, turpentine, crossties, etc. 

"I saw years ago the necessity of trying to preserve the forests 
that the next generation might have a little of what my genera- 
tion had much of. So, thirty odd years ago, I went to preaching 
and trying to practice conservation against all seeming odds, and 
by using roads and plowing breaks have succeeded in a limited 
way. But could I have had the Forest Service aid thirty years 
ago that we now have in educating the people in conservation 




W. J. Mullis, Waycross, Route 4, Pioneer in Fire Protection View 

of Some of His Forest Land 



of the forests, I feel that we could have had a country, now in 
its childhood, coming to the high standard of wealth that it en- 
joyed sixty years ago. 

"I expect to preach and practice forest preservation in my 
humble way, and aid in any way I can in educating the people 



Georgia Forest Service 



11 



up to a higher standard, that our country may have a little of 
what God's laws of nature have in store for us." 

Poor Prospect Becomes Bright with Pines and 
Carpet Grass 

C. L. Williams, Vienna, Ga., with 400 acres of slash pine, 
began protection of the forest in 1910. Read his interesting 
statement of what he has accomplished: 

"When I came to this place 20 years ago I began protecting 
my land from fire. At that time the turpentine men thought the 
timber wasn't worth looking at, but now they want to cup all 
of it — all because I protected it from fire. 

"My timberland is mostly in the low, moist places, and is 
now covered with a good stand of carpet grass. I first noticed 




C. L. Williams, Vienna, Estimates 4 to 5 Per Cent Returns on 
Investment in Pines 



the carpet grass on an old sawmill site, where the cattle kept it 
grazed down. Since then, it has spread all over my woods and 
makes an excellent pasture, except after a heavy freeze, when I 



1 2 Profitable Forestry in Georgia 

cannot use it for 3 or 4 months. Some years the pasture stays 
green all winter, and I can pasture my sheep all of the year. I 
also notice that where the grazing is heavy, the carpet grass is 
killing out the gall-berry. 

"I find the best way to keep down the fire is to graze my pas- 
ture to the maximum. This will prevent the grass from getting 
rank and will reduce the fire hazard. Wherever I can keep out 
fire the young slash pines come in thick, grow fast, and have a 
much healthier color and appearance than saplings that are 
burned. I have some land that I have not protected from fire, 
and here there are very few saplings coming in. 

"I think protection from woods fires is a paying proposition, 
and estimate that the growing trees on my woodlands are paying 
taxes and yielding 4 to 5 per cent on the investment. " 

Restoring Cut- Over Pine Land 

Albert Harper, Osierfield, Ga., with 2200 acres of slash and 
longleaf pineland, decided in 1920 to utilize cut-over pineland 
and concluded that the best way was to grow pines. He has 
planted and protected from fire with, fire-breaks. Here is his 
statement: 

"After the timber had been turpentined and saw milled, I 
saw that the only way to make my land pay was to protect it 
from fire and let the pine trees grow. At the present return on 
farm land it will not pay to clear the cut-over land and raise 
farm crops. We do not have a fence law and cannot make 
any money in cattle. So the only way the cut-over lands will 
pay taxes and give an income is to raise pine trees. 

"I began in 1920 to try to keep out the fires, and had fairly 
good results where I could watch it closely. Four years ago I 
began plowing fire breaks and find these are a great help in 
keeping out the fire. I plow strips about 15 feet wide, but I 
think they should be at least 20 feet wide. 

"I have noticed that where my land is protected the pine trees 
come in very thickly, grow fast in height, and grow from one- 



Georgia Forest Service 



13 




Albert Harper, Osierfield, Finds Fire Protection Brings Pine in 
Thickly and that They Grow Rapidly 



fourth to one-half inch a year in diameter. 

"I do not expect to harvest much of the second-growth timber 
on my land, but young thrifty trees increase the value of the 
land, and my boys will be able to make some money out of it. 

"Growing timber on land that isn't profitable for farm crops 
is a good thing for the community. It gives the laboring man 
a job, the railroads business, the wood-using industries a source 
of raw material, taxable wealth for the county, and a profit for 
the owner." 

Leading Plantation of Slash and Longleaf Pine 



On account of its location on a much traveled highway, the 
plantings of slash and longleaf pine north of Cordele is proba- 
bly the best known pine plantation in Georgia. F. E. Fenn 
started this plantation which is being enlarged by his daugh- 
ter, Miss Alene Fenn. As a combination pine and pasture 
proposition, this project promises to be very intersting. Miss 
Fenn's statement follows: 



14 Profitable Forestry in Georgia 

"In the spring of 1926, my father, F. E. Fenn, had some 
low, waste lands that were not producing anything to pay taxes 
or interest. From a natural love of the pine tree and a desire to 
make waste land pay an income, he conceived the idea of plant- 
ing this land to pines. Being a turpentine operator, he naturally 
viewed the enterprise from a business standpoint, and considered 
that the planting of trees would yield a good return at a future 
date. He was the first man in this section of Georgia to plant 
slash pine trees, and stated he wanted to be the first man to cup 
trees that had been planted. 




.■■ 




Fenn Plantation of Slash Pines Near Cordele Growing Rapidly 

Attact Attention on Leading Highway 



"My father planted 40 acres to slash pine in 1926 and 
planned to perpetuate his turpentine business by doing some 
planting work every spring and working his timber conserva- 
tively. The seedlings were pulled up in the marshy places, put in 



Georgia Forest Service 15 

a barrel of water, and then set out in rows 8x8 feet and 10x10 
feet. The roots were kept moist all of the time, and the trees 
were carefully planted; resulting in 90% establishment. 

"My father did some planting every spring since 1926, and 
since his death, we are carrying on the work. At present we have 
approximately 150 acres of waste land planted to trees. The 
trees planted in 1926 now average 10 to 12 feet in height, and 
will probably be 9 inches in diameter in from 12 to 15 years 
after planting. The trees are making excellent diameter and 
height growth, and we expect to be able to work them in 1940; 
or as soon as they reach a 9-inch diameter. In our turpentine 
business we have established 9-inch as the minimum diameter 
for cupping. 

"A 75-acre tract, along state highway Number 7, three miles 
north of Cordele, that my father first planted is being created 
into a memorial to him. It is being deeded to all of the heirs and 
cannot be sold or divided as long as any of the heirs are living, 
and as long as the Georgia laws will permit. Carpet grass and 
lespedeza have been planted among the pines on this 75-acre 
tract, and we are now grazing 40 head of dairy cows on it. 

"We consider growing pine timber and grazing cattle to be a 
profitable business." 

Pine Planting Increased Land Value 100 Per Cent 

A. K. Rountree, Summit, Ga., began in 1926 to plant slash 
pine, also to protect from fire, thin and prune established forests. 
His planting experience is significant. The statement of Mr. 
Rountree is as follows; 

"I started setting out pines in 8 ft. checks in the spring of 
1926. I gathered these pines from old fields and along streams, 
planting 35,000 seedlings on approximately 40 acres, 25 per 
cent of which lived. Replanted the same fall and 75 per cent 
lived. 

Each year now I have been getting seedlings from the State 
Nursery at Athens, and find that I get much better results for 



16 Profitable Forestry in Georgia 

more of them live. We planted 15,000 in January, 1930 and 
the district forester at Swainsboro states that 95 per cent of 
them are living. 

"I notice that my trees grow more rapidly after the third year, 
and I believe that 10x10 feet spacing is ideal for this section of 
Georgia. That has been my experience. This land was idle 
until it was planted in slash pine and the value of the land alone 
has increased 100 per cent as compared to 1926. To date, I have 
received no actual money returns, but the land is building up in- 
stead of depreciating, and I expect to lease this for turpentine in 
8 more years, which will net me more than I could hope to make 
by farming it." 

Turpentine Operator a Leading Tree Planter 

The work of James Fowler, Soperton, Ga., in planting and 
care of pines has attracted wide attention. His plantation has 
attracted many visitors, including federal and state foresters. 
The success attending his efforts has provided the basis of maga- 
zine and newspaper articles, and Mr. Fowler is quite in demand 
as a speaker at forestry conventions. The following statement 
of Mr. Fowler is of special interest: 

"In 1926 I planted about 10 acres in slash pine, of which 
around 85 per cent lived and grew off fine. So in February, 
1927, I planted 130 acres of slash seedlings that were one and 
two years old. These seedlings were obtained from old fields and 
along the heads of streams and were planted in rows checked 10 
x 10 feet, which I have found to be the best spacing in my sec- 
tion. Today I have 1,000 acres planted in slash pine and of 
the last 640 acres planted, I received a 99 per cent, stand. There 
has been no fire on any of this land. 

"In November, 1928, I saw a demonstration in fire break con- 
struction, and as fire was my greatest enemy, I determined to 
build fire breaks on all my timber land and protect my young 
timber, for I found that fire kills these little slash pines. Today 
I have fire breaks on all my land — 5,200 acres — and have had 



Georgia Forest Service 



17 




James Fowler, Soperton, Has Planted 1,000 Acres in Slash Pine with 

Excellent Results Note in Picture Protected Trees on Left and 

Burned-Over Area on Right 

only two small fires which were put out very easily because the 
breaks gave us an advantage by holding it down until the crew 
arrived. 

"I have also done considerable pruning and thinning; re- 
moving undesirable, dead and diseased trees, and pruning up 
the balance to help reduce my fire hazard. Planting pines and 
protecting them certainly pays, for today I have a supply of 
turpentine timber that is second to none; while in 1925 it was 
just idle farm land that was a burden and didn't produce enough 
to pay the taxes. My land has increased in value 100 per cent 
and in 8 years I intend to turpentine my planted orchard. With 
the help of the Georgia Forest Service, I intend to keep growing 
timber which will insure me of a continual supply for my tur- 
pentine business." 

Fire Breaks Let Young Pines Get a Start 



James Peterson, Soperton, Ga., with 1,400 acres of land, de- 
cided to build fire breaks to keep his land from burning over 



18 Profitable Forestry in Georgia 

every year. He wants to grow longleaf and slash pines and red 
gum. He is practicing fire protection, thinning and pruning. 
His statement follows: 

"I have lived in a turpentine country practically all my life 
and have seen the developments in forest management and espec- 
ially in fire protection. 

"In February, the Oconee Timber Protective Organization 
was formed in Montgomery and Treutlen counties, by the Geor- 
gia Forest Service. I listed my land and started immediately to 
build fire breaks like the ones I saw on Mr. Jim Gillis' timber- 
land. Now I have about 10 miles of breaks and have not had a 
single fire this year. Every year except this one, the area had 
been burned over, killing and destroying my little trees, but last 
year was a good seed year and no fires on my land this spring re- 
sulted in a good stand of litle pines that are now just poking up 
through the wire grass. 

"It certainly pays to protect your timber and especially the 
young trees, for that is the timber of tomorrow. My land has 
increased in value 75 per cent over last year, and also affords 
grazing for more cattle than it did when it was burned every 
year." 

Fire Protection and Thinning Increased Growth Rate 

100 Per Cent 

John J. Gillis, Soperton, Ga., with 12,000 acres, is protecting 
his timber with fire breaks, thinning, planting, pruning, using 
improved turpentine methods, and is an outstanding leader in 
this region. He finds that care of his forests increased tree growth 
100 per cent. His statement follows: 

"In 1927 I began protecting my timber by plowing fire 
breaks on about 5,000 acres, which at that time was supporting 
a stand of young slash pine. I knew that this was to be my fu- 
ture timber for obtaining my gum and that fire would kill it, so 
I decided then to have my land listed in the Treutlen Timber 
Protective Organization, and to build breaks on all of it. Today 
I have fire breaks on 12,000 acres and have had no fires to date. 



Georgia Forest Service 



19 




Timber Protective Organization Methods Bring Large Returns 
According to John J. Gillis, Soperton 



"I have planted 400 acres in slash pine in the last two years 
and have thinned and pruned over 4,000 acres, which has helped 
reduce my fire hazard and accelerated growth on the area worked 
over 75 per cent. I now have a good, even stand of young tim- 
ber that is growing very fast, and by keeping fires out, this land 
has increased in value 100 per cent. I intend to begin working 
some of my young timber in 6 years. 

"When I began work in 1927, my land was worth about 
$15 per acre. Now. I would not sell for $30 per acre. It cer- 
tainly pays to keep out fires and grow timber. It is a good in- 
vestment that will pay big returns, for when I get ready to sell 
my timber I can get my own price for it." 

Woman Leader Practices Forestry on Pine and 
Hardwood Area of North Georgia 



Mrs. M. E. Judd, Dalton, Ga., landscape artist, woman's club 
leader, member of the State Board of Forestry, began in 1905 
to improve 150 acres of woodland. She has established fire 
breaks, thinned and carried on improvement cutting. Her suc- 
cess indicates how many Georgia women can devote themselves 
to increasing the forest wealth of Georgia. 

Mrs. Judd's interesting statement follows: 

"Twenty-five years ago I acquired the home place at Dalton, 



20 



Profitable Forestry in Georgia 



Georgia, on which I am living at present. 

"When I first came here a stunted growth of pine and hard- 
wood covered most of the place. I saw the necessity of taking 
care of my woodland if I was ever to have any trees that I 
might use for building purposes and for fuel. Every year the ad- 
joining lands are burned over, but in spite of that, I have en- 




Mrs. M. E. Judd, Dalton, Practices Forestry with Good Results — 
View of Fire Break 



deavored to keep fire out of my woods, having had only one of 
any importance in twenty-five years. 

"The result of this protection is very apparent. Tree growth 
has increased at an enormous rate, soil has improved because 
of forest litter, and the beauty of my place has increased 
a hundred-fold. 

"Trees once stunted and small have reached a size ready to be 



Georgia Forest Service 



21 



cut and young ones are coming in to take the places of those I 
will use from time to time. 

"From suggestions made by the Georgia Forest Service I am 
endeavoring to work out a form of management of my wood- 
land whereby I can get the greatest amount of forest growth by 
eliminating the inferior trees and allowing the best ones to grow. 
Fire lines have been constructed on all sides to better protect it 
from fire which may originate on adjoining land. 

"I believe in protection of woodland and will continue to 
give my woods the best protection that is possible." 

More Gum and Less Dry Faces Where Fire Breaks 
Are Maintained 

J. M. Dyal, Baxley, Ga., a prominent turpentine operator, 
owning 19,000 acres, began forest fire protection in 1927 and 
is also planting trees. More gum, less dry faces and fewer dead 
trees are the results of his fire protection. He says: 

"I have been trying to practice fire control on 19,000 acres 
of land in Appling county for the past four years. While it has 




J. M. Dyal, Baxley, Gets More Gum From Protected Trees. 



22 



Profitable Forestry in Georgia 



been expensive, I only wish I had started the work earlier as it is 
the only way for owners of cut-over lands to get a return on their 
investment. I have a complete fire break around the entire out- 
side lines of my lands, and also inside fire breaks cutting this 
into smaller tracts, taking advantage of streams and roads wher- 
ever practical. 

"I am working eighteen crops of turpentine timber on this 
tract, and find that it produces more gum with less dry faces and 
fewer dead trees than if burned over each year. I expected to have 
a good deal of trouble getting my labor to work on rough 
woods on account of the danger from snakes, but as most of the 
men are working on a basis of so much per barrel of crude gum 
they are now anxious to keep the fire out of their crops on ac- 
count of the greater yield " 

Wonderful Growth Follows Fire Protection 

A. V. Kennedy, Waycross, Ga., began fire protection on 
7,500 acres in 1927, and is practicing thinning. He notes won- 
derful growth and in two years he estimates that keeping out 




V. Kennedy, Waycross, Finds Wonderful Increase in Growth of 
Young Pines When Protected from Fire 



Georgia Forest Service 



23 



fire has increased the value $2 per acre. Mr. Kennedy advocates 
using the United States Army for fire patrol. He says: 

"I have been protecting this land for three years and have 
had very little of it burned over during this period. I have a 
wonderful growth of young slash pine now. I would not have 
it burned over today for $2.00 per acre." 

Stand of Timber Increased 60 to 90 Per Cent With 
Fire Protection 

Marsh Brothers and Wilson, Stockton, Ga., with 15,000 
acres of slash and longleaf pine are protecting, thinning, plant- 
ing and using improved methods of turpentining, and are 
greatly pleased with results. Their statement is as follows: 

"We began this project during the winter of 1925 and 1926. 
At that time the stand of timber was about 60 per cent, where 
now we have a stand of small timber of at least 90 per cent of 
the tract. Our main problem now is thinning the saplings out 
to a stand of about 15x15 feet. 




Marsh and Wilson, Stockton, Increased Stand of Timber From 60 to 
90 Per Cent With Fire Protection 



24 



Profitable Forestry in Georgia 



"We have had no fires during 1928, 1929 and so far in 1930. 
With fire protection, the growth of the young timber is won- 
derful. We figure that we are growing about 75 per cent of yel- 
low slash pine." 

College Practices Forestry On Its 15,000 Acres 

The famous Martha Berry School near Rome has 15,000 
acres of hardwood and pine forest. A stone fire tower has been 
erected on the mountain, fire breaks are used, thinning and im- 
provement cutting and planting are practiced. The hundreds of 
students are getting a vision of forest production as a result. A 
statement by the school is as follows: 




Martha Berry School, Near Rome, Teaches and Practices Forestry — 
Views of Fire Tower and Forest 



"Forest protection has been carried on at Berry Schools for 
fifteen years. In 1928 Berry Schools cooperated with the Geor- 



Georgia Forest Service 25 

gia Forest Service in establishing a timber protective unit, there- 
by working out a better system of protection. A lookout tower 
has been erected on a high point within the school property 
which overlooks the entire area. Telephones connect it with 
all buildings. When a fire starts it is soon put out because every 
boy on the campus is subject to call if necessary. 

"As a result of protection, much new growth has been started, 
the older timber has grown to a better advantage, reproduction 
is coming in as under-forest to older timber. 

"The results of protection are apparent, and this is a fine 
example to hundreds of boys and girls who are students at 
Berry. 

"Through cooperation with the Georgia Forest Service, we 
hope to make Berry Schools' forest an outstanding example of 
what timber protection will really do in the coming years." 

Every Tenant a Fire Fighter 

J. Henry Gaskins, Nashville, has 6,500 acres in slash and 
longleaf pine, mostly slash. He is one of the pioneers in fire 
protection in South Georgia, beginning about six years ago. He 
is not only using fire breaks but is thinning and carrying on 
improvement cutting. Mr. Gaskins says: 

"I have about 90 miles of fire lines averaging about 8 feet in 
width. These will stop fire some of the time and can always be 
depended on for backfiring. Every farmer I have is a fire 
fighter, and it takes organized help to stop fire. 

"I have practically a full stand of slash timber on all my land 
from small ones in the grass to 20 feet high, and where there 
has been no burning (as most of mine has been protected) tim- 
ber grows much better and is not stunted by fire. You can not 
have first-class young timber and burn the woods. Fire and 
timber don't go good together. 

"I am unable to give returns as none of my reforestation trees 
are large enough to use, but it will give good returns in a few 
years. Woods can be kept rough with proper care." 



26 Profitable Forestry in Georgia 

Large Commercial Interests Practice Forestry 

The Superior Pine Products Company, Fargo, has 200,000 
acres of land growing slash pine, longleaf pine and cypress. An 
expert forester was placed in charge in 1926 at which time fire 
protection was begun. The Company practices improvement 
cutting, planting and improved methods of turpentining. A 
statement from this organization is as follows: 

"This company maintains three look-out towers and from 
four to seven mounted patrolmen. In addition, during the sea- 
sons of high fire hazard, a special crew of five men equipped 
with truck, water pumps and other fire fighting tools, is main- 
tained for the purpose of quickly going to fires as they are dis- 
covered and reported by the tower men or patrolmen. Each 
fall and winter prior to the main spring fire season from 150 to 
300 miles of fire line are constructed or maintained. 

"The total cost of fire protection amounted to 5.7 cents per 
acre per annum for the last calendar year. 

"In 1926, before we were well organized, we had burned 
about 8 per cent of our area. In 1927, a very dry year, the burn- 
ed area covered about 6 per cent. In 1928, the area burned was 
0.7 per cent, and in 1929 the area burned was 0.6 per cent. 
The last two years have been wet seasons and very favorable 
for fire protection. If we can average over a period of ten 
years an annual loss of not to exceed 5 per cent of the area, 
we will consider our work very satisfactory. As a result of four 
years of fire protection, we have restocked with slash pine over 
70,000 acres of cut-over land that previously was less than 25 
per cent stocked with longleaf pine. 

"Since our naval stores and wood products operations are 
all conducted on a basis of a continuous supply of timber, it is 
essential that we restock our land to fast growing slash pine just 
as fast as we cut it over. It is also necessary that there be no idle 
acres of land; every acre must bear as nearly 100 per cent of its 
tree-growing capacity as it can be made to do by good manage- 
ment and fire protection." 



Georgia Forest Service 
Dalton Has a Town Forest 



27 



One of the few cities owning a forest is Dalton. A forest of 
30 acres consisting of hardwood and pine, typical of North 
Georgia, is being operated as a demonstration forest. The mayor 
of Dalton makes the following statement: 

"Through the efforts of several of Dalton's leading citizens 
cooperating with the Georgia Forest Service, the Town Forest of 
Dalton, Ga., was created. Some thirty acres of the city property 
was set aside for a town forest in 1929. This thirty acres is 
covered with a 100 per cent stand of 8 to 12 year old shortleaf 
and loblolly pine. 




Dalton Has Demonstration Forest 



"This forest was established more for a demonstration of for- 
est possibilities to the people of Dalton and Whitfield county 
than for its commercial possibilities. 

"Efforts are being made to establish fire breaks and adequate 
protection from fire. A fire line on one side of the tract is being 
established the first year. 

"Thinnings and improvements will be carried on in the fu- 



28 Profitable Forestry in Georgia 

ture so as to get the maximum growth per acre. It is planned to 
add additional open land of the city adjoining this tract which 
will be planted to pine. 

"It is hoped that this forest will prove to be an inspiration 
to the people of Whitfield county, thereby creating a "forestry 
consciousness" which will materially benefit everyone in the 
county by advancing the cause of forest protection and growing 
of timber." 

Results on Growth and Returns on Chipping 
Small Trees 

The estate of C. S. Hodges, Cyrene, is making observations 
on rate of growth and gum yield of trees of different sizes. 
Charles S. Hodges reports: 

"We have under observation two different tracts of approxi- 
mately the same number of trees in each tract. One tract is cup- 
ped down as low as seven inches and another tract cupped 
down not lower than nine inches. From the seven-inch tract we 
got eight barrels of crude gum from three streaks, and from the 
nine-inch tract we got twelve barrels from three streaks. 

"Judging from this, we feel safe in saying that it does not 
pay to cup lower than nine inches. Also, from borings that we 
have taken lately, we are convinced that the injury in growth to 
trees is 50 per cent greater when cupped small than when cup- 
ped nine and ten inches. By this, we mean to say that the 
growth per year over a period of from twenty to twenty-five 
years on trees cupped at seven inches would be not over a fourth 
of an inch a year, where on trees cupped over nine inches would 
be a third of an inch a year." 

Worn-Out Fields Set to Pines 

Berry Rigdon, Tifton, has 1,700 acres and is converting 
worn-out land to pine plantations. He is protecting from fire, 
planting, thinning and pruning, Mr. Rigdon says: 

"I had some old, worn-out fields that would not pay to farm, 



Georgia Forest Service 



29 



so thought I would set them out to pine trees. In 1928 I dug 
some slash pines out of the woods and planted them in some 
of my old fields. They were two year old seedlings and 90 per 
cent of them lived and are making wonderful growth. I have 
experimented with different spacings — using 6x12, 6x16 and 
8x30 spacings. Some of the trees I expect to turpentine when 
they are 10 years old from planting. My minimum diameter for 
working will be 9 inches. 




Berry Rigdon, Tifton, Plants Pines on Unprofitable Farm Land 

Fire Protection Good Investment 



"Two years ago I began protecting my land from fire by 
plowing and burning fire breaks. With two mules I plow two 
furrows about 40 feet apart and burn out the strip in between 
the furrows. I plow around the outside boundaries and cross 
break it so as to get it into 20 to 40 acre blocks. 

"Protecting land from fire is a good investment because thous- 
ands of young trees get a start that would otherwise be killed 
by the annual fires. The trees grow a lot faster, are healthier 
and will produce more gum. 

"I have thinned and pruned 50 acres of slash pine that came 



30 



Profitable Forestry in Georgia 



up in an old broom sedge field. These trees were about 5 years 
old and 10 to 12 feet high when I pruned them. The thinning 
to about 250 trees per acre will increase the growth of the trees, 
and the pruning will make the body of the tree free of knots. 

"I believe all timber owners will find it profitable to plant to 
pines all fields that will not pay as farm land." 

Pioneer In Pine Planting 

After winning fame as a tackle on the University of Georgia 
team, W. O. Wingate tackled farming and is among the first 
to begin pine tree planting in Georgia, turning his attention to 
this on his farm near Ocilla in 1924. He uses fire breaks, plants, 
thins and prunes. Mr. Wingate says: 

"In 1924 I found that a large portion of my farm land was 
too poor to produce profitable farm crops. Having noticed in 
some small corners where fire had not burned for a few years. 




W. O. Wingate, Ocilla, Pioneer Pine Planter Well Pleased With 

Progress 

that pine timber if given protection would reproduce rapidly, 
and that it is the crop nature intended for this type of land, I 



Georgia Forest Service 31 

set out to learn how to raise pine trees as a crop. 

"After digging and pulling some saplings out of the branches 
and setting them in the open spaces I found that it was too 
expensive, and that it was much cheaper to either sow the seed 
in beds or get the seedlings from the Forest Service. 

"I also found that if there are as many as two seed trees per 
acre over the woodland it is not necessary to plant — but just 
keep out the fire. I protect my land from fire by plowing fire 
breaks 12 feet wide, and locating them about 200 yards apart. 

"In 12 to 15 years after setting I am expecting to work my 
trees for turpentine. By working conservatively I can turpentine 
them for at least 20 to 24 years. 

"I have received much valuable information and assistance 
from the Extension Forester and from the Georgia Forest Ser- 
vice; and I would advise any landowner wanting to reforest to 
get in touch with these departments. He will find them always 
ready to render assistance." 

Fire Breaks Versus Control Burnings in Turpentine 

Operations 

Baldwin-Lewis-Pace Company, Jacksonville, Florida, oper- 
ating 15,000 acres near Stockton, Georgia, make a statement 
through H. M. Wilson, Vice-President, showing how this com- 
pany finds it pays to use modern fire protective methods instead 
of raking and burning around the trees. The statement is as fol- 
lows: 

"In the fall of 1926, after looking over several tracts of flat 
woods land that had been protected from fire for from two to 
four years, I became convinced that all that was needed to estab- 
lish a second growth of slash timber on our place near Stockton. 
Ga., was protection from fire. After consulting with my asso- 
ciates we decided to place our tract of approximately 15,000 
acres under fire protection. 

"We immediately began construction of fire lines, and sup- 



32 Profitable Forestry in Georgia 

plied ourselves with one-man water tanks, torches, etc., for 
fire fighting. 

"We were working at that time fifteen crops of faces on part 
of this tract and as we wanted to establish new growth on the 
land on which these faces were being worked, we decided to 
protect this land also and not rake the boxes at all. 

"We have not raked a tree for the past four winters and in 
that time we have had not more than 50 faces burned out of 
an average of sixteen crops per year worked on the place. In 
this connection we acknowledge with sincere appreciation the 
community cooperation we have enjoyed. 

"The average cost of raking being $75.00 per crop, we saved 
approximately $4,800.00 during the four years, and the total 
cost of our reforestation work on the entire 15,000 acres, in- 
cluding tractor and thinning, has not exceeded $5,000.00 to 
date. 

"The problem now facing us for economical solution is how 
best to thin the heavy growth of slash pine now on practically 
the entire tract. 

"This concern's holdings show slash pine 9 1-2 inches and 

10 inches in diameter 4 1-2 feet from the ground, showing 

11 and 12-ring growth, with density of stand 14 to 15 feet be- 
tween trees, or approximately 200 trees per acre." 

Ichaway Timber Protective Organization's Success 

The Ichaway Timber Protective Organization in Baker 
County directs fire control on 22,000 acres. Roy Rogers, secre- 
tary of the organization, says: 

"With the exception of about 400 acres, our whole area had 
been burned over every year up till last year when we began fire 
protection work under the direction of the Georgia Forest Ser- 
vice. 

"We patrolled, put in fire breaks and had very little burned. 
This past season we put forth greater effort and the results have 
been wonderful. Every acre of land that joins ours has been 



Georgia Forest Service 



33 




Ichaway Timber Protective Organization, Baker County, Surprised 
at Results of Fire Protection 



burned, and up to date we have had less than 200 acres to burn 
over. It is impossible to estimate this protection work. Our 
young timber has taken on new growth and looks fine." 

Trees Grow Fifty Percent Faster With Protection 
And Management 



Turner Turpentine Company, Howell, Ga., has 10,000 
acres of cut-over pine land, now undergoing reforestation. Fire 
protection and thinning are bringing about rapid increase in 
growth as will be seen from the following statement: 

"We commenced protecting our forest about two years ago. 
At first, about all the work that was done was thinning small 
saplings that were crowded. This was done on a very small 
area, and we now have wonderful results from this thinning. In 
my opinion, this young timber is growing 50 per cent faster 
than it was before it was thinned. During January, 1929, we 
put on a patrolman, and also put in considerable fire breaks, and 
since that time we have been keeping that work up. I can already 



34 Profitable Forestry in Georgia 

see wonderful results from this work, as large areas that have 
been protected from fire are now restored with young yellow 
pine saplings." 

Large Virgin Hardwood Forest Under Protection 

Shippen Hardwood Lumber Company, Ellijay, Ga., owns 
48,066 acres of mountain hardwood forest on which fire pro- 
tection has been carried on since May 1928. A statement from 
this company is as follows: 

"This company owns approximately fifty thousand acres of 
forest land located in Gilmer, Fannin and Murray counties, 
Georgia. Practically all of this area is virgin forest and most 
of the timber is hardwood. This tract is one of the largest re- 
maining virgin hardwood tracts left in the United States. The 
forest contains a fair stand of yellow poplar, white and red 
oaks, and numerous other hardwoods, together with a consider- 
able amount of white pine. 

"The present owners of this tract have this land under organ- 
ized protection from forest fires in cooperation with the Georgia 
Forest Service. So far, no active timber operations have been con- 
ducted on this holding, the idea being to protect it from fire in 
order to prevent damage to the mature timber and to enable the 
young growth to establish itself under the mature stand. 

"Like most of the other forest areas of the Southern Appa- 
lachian mountain regions, these lands have suffered from peri- 
odic burning over a period of many years and the forest has 
been damaged, especially through the destruction of young 
growth. 

"The owners fully appreciate the value of fire protection and 
it is their hope that when the mature timber is removed that a 
second growth will have been established to take the place of 
the original stand. The fire protection work is under the direct 
supervision of an employee of the company and a warden sys- 
tem has been developed among the inhabitants of adjoining 
lands. 

"Fire warning posters and personal contact work is done in 



Georgia Forest Service 



35 



an effort to prevent the occurrence of forest fires as well as the 
suppressing of fires which do occur." 

Pfister and Vogel Land Company Protects Large 
Mountain Holdings 

The Pfister and Vogel Land Company, Blairsville, Ga., owns 
65,000 acres of mixed hardwoods, and began active forest man- 
agement under Bonnell H. Stone, forester, in 1913. Remarkable 
success has been obtained in fire protection. 

A statement issued by a representative of the Company is as 
follows: 

"The Pfister and Vogel Land Company was organized as a 
Georgia corporation and began buying timber lands in the 
counties of Union and Towns in 1900, the main object being 




Pfister and Vogel Land Company, Blairsville, has 65,000 Acres of 
Hardwood Views of Yellow Poplar and White Oak Stands 



36 Profitable Forestry in Georgia 

a reserve supply of extract wood for tannin materials. When 
some 85,000 acres had been acquired, a sale was made to the 
United States in 1914 of approximately 19,000 acres, or all 
that part of the tract lying on the headwaters of Toccoa River 
in Union county where this watershed now comprises a part of 
the Cherokee National Forest. The remaining acreage owned by 
this company lies on the Notalee river watershed in Union 
county and on the Hiawassee river watershed in Towns county. 

"The company employed a trained forester in 1913 and, fol- 
lowing the sale to the United States, a definite policy of pro- 
tection was established in 1915. 

"A report made by timber cruisers had convinced the owners 
that 65 to 75 per cent of these lands were being burned an- 
nually, so the first lookout towers and telephone patrol system 
of the South were constructed on these lands in 1915-16, 
rangers and patrolmen being employed to direct the tenant- 
firewardens. A good tenant system was used instead of paid fire- 
fighters, and free range privileges were included in other conces- 
sions in order to secure cooperation in the prevention of forest 
fires. As a result of these methods, the average burned area per 
year has been less than one-tenth of one percent from 1915 to 
the present time (1930). The owners are satisfied with this 
work as a paying investment, and are convinced that values in 
new growth more than off-set the cost of protection and all 
carrying charges on the property." 

Cotton Mill Practices Forestry 

The Chicopee Manufacturing Company, Chicopee, near 
Gainesville, owns 4,000 acres of mixed hardwood and pine for- 
est. Work began on the forest in 1928 under the supervision of 
the Georgia Forest Service. Fire breaks have been established, 
thinning improvement cutting and planting are being practiced. 
A statement concerning this project is as follows: 
"The Chicopee Manufacturing Corporation purchased a tract 
of 3652 acres situated in Hall county, Georgia, three miles 



Georgia Forest Service 37 

southwest of Gainesville. 

"The tract was acquired by the Chicopee Manufacturing 
Corporation to get sites for reservoirs for the water supply of 
the mill and mill village and to get control of the watershed 
draining into the reservoirs. The object in undertaking to 




Chicopee Manufacturing Company Cotton Mills at Chicopee Has 
Largest Forest — Planting Crew at Work 

practice forestry on the property is to protect the watershed from 
erosion, to secure a more regular stream flow, to create an attrac- 
tive setting for the mill and village and to secure a maximum 
production of forest products. 

"The area has been placed under intensive fire protection. A 
full-time forest and game warden has been employed and devotes 
his time to patrolling the area, and is responsible for protecting 
it from fire. A number of tenants and all employees of the cor- 
poration are instructed to report forest fires when discovered, 
and the area has been thoroughly posted with fire warning post- 
ers. A system of old roads throughout the entire area are kept 
open and maintained as fire breaks, and make the area accessible 
for fire suppression crews. 



38 Profitable Forestry in Georgia 

"Upon discovery of a forest fire suppression crews are 
promptly organized, equipped with suitable tools and trans- 
ported to the scene of the fire. While the tract has suffered 
severely from fires in the past, less than 1 per cent of the area 
has been burned per annum during the two years the tract has 
been under protection. 

"The forest is being improved by thinnings and improve- 
ment cuttings in which poorly formed and defective trees are 
removed. The material from these operations is used for fuel in 
the incinerator and in fire places. 

"The area of old fields which are not restocking satisfactorily, 
or where gullies are forming, is being planted. A small nursery 
is maintained for the purpose of producing seedlings. 

"The forest is managed under a plan prepared by the Georgia 
Forest Service and the forestry operations are conducted under 
the supervision of an assistant state forester." 

Profits From North Georgia Upland Forest 

J. M. Lindsey, Armuchee, in northwest Georgia, has found 
care and proper harvesting of forests pays on ridge land not 
suited for farming. He tells in the following statement of how 
he has obtained three crops from his land. 

"In the year 1893 I bought two hundred acres of timberland 
covered with pine and hardwood near Armuchee, Georgia. I 
have practiced forestry after some fashion ever since I have own- 
ed it. The tract cost me $40.00 at that time. I took 150,000 
board feet off of the tract, doing my own cutting, during the 
next three or four years. This was mostly a selection cutting. 
One instance of such a cutting was the price I was offered for 
one white oak tree taken off of the tract. I was offered $60.00 
for this one tree. 

"After ten years I sold the sawmill rights to an operator and 
made him cut to a diameter limit of 10 inches. The cut ran to 
600,000 feet. This represents the second cut. Three years ago I 
sold the timber rights again and the operator cut 200,000 feet 



Georgia Forest Service 



39 



from the tract. 

"I have endeavored to keep fire out during my ownership of 
the land because I believe in timber protection in every way, and 
hope that with the cooperation of the Georgia Forest Service 
I can get better protection for my land in the future." 

Growth Rate in Absence of Fire 

D. H. Bennett, Gardi, has 6,800 acres of longleaf and slash 
pine which he is protecting from fire; thinning, employing im- 
provement cutting, pruning and using good turpentine methods. 




D. H. Bennett, Gardi, Has Protected Pines 20 Years Old Averaging 
14 Inches in Diameter 



He began protecting in 1917. Twenty-year old slash pine aver- 
age 14 inches in diameter at 4 1-2 feet from the ground. He 
says: 

"In reference to fire protection I am sure it will pay from my 
own experience, as I have protected some of my land from fire 
and some has been burned over regularly. The land that has 
not been burned over so often has more than twice as good tim- 



40 Profitable Forestry in Georgia 

ber as that on the land burned over regularly." 

Satisfactory Results From Cooperative Protection 

Miles and Dunn, Baxley, with 5,000 acres of slash and long- 
leaf pine, joined the Timber Protective Organization and are 
well pleased with results. J. R. Dunn says: 

"For the last quarter of 1929 we operated our timber lands 
in cooperation with the State Forester, in cooperation also with 
the local Timber Protective Organization. Fire breaks have 
been constructed, patrol work done, etc., in an effort to protect 
our trees and make conditions better to produce more on the 
same lands. 

"Our experience has been satisfactory. We have not had 
any fires even though our lands are in an area that has been 
used to more or less regular burning. 

"In this county we have been helped and our requirements 
kept up with by our county agent, who acts as secretary of the 
local organization. We hope the county agents here and there 
will be active in this fine field of service."